Round-Ended And Bull-Nosed Bricks

Figs. 28 and 29 are for use at corners where sharp arrises would be liable to damage.

Splay Bricks are bevelled off on one side, like Fig. 30. They are sometimes called slopes.

Double Cant Bricks have a splay on both sides, like Fig. 31.

Round Ended And Bull Nosed Bricks 30028

Fig. 32.

Round Ended And Bull Nosed Bricks 30029

Fig. 33.

Round Ended And Bull Nosed Bricks 30030

Fig. 34.

Round Ended And Bull Nosed Bricks 30031

Fig. 35.

Pavings are made generally of dark blue Staffordshire ware, very hard, the surfaces rendered less slippery by being indented with flutes, or with a diamond pattern. See Figs. 32, 33.

Gutter Bricks, called also Channel and Sough bricks, are made of various sections, such as that in Fig. 34, which shows a gutter brick with stop end.

Drain Bricks are of the form shown in Fig. 35. A number of these placed side by side form a suitable floor for a cattle-shed, or for any building where much liquid falls on the floor, and has to be carried off at once.

Coping Bricks are made of several different sections to suit walls of different thicknesses.

Round Ended And Bull Nosed Bricks 30032

Fig. 36.

Round Ended And Bull Nosed Bricks 30033

Fig. 35.

When they are to project they should always be throated as in Fig. 3 7.

They are either prepared to receive palisades, as in Fig. 36, or left plain with a curved or an angular top as in Fig. 37.

Copings for Platforms and Wing Walls are for railway or other platforms, and for retaining and wing walls. They are made either plain, or (for platforms) with indented or fluted surfaces.

Round Ended And Bull Nosed Bricks 30034

Fig. 38.

Coping bricks are made of considerable size, even as large as 18 inches by 6 inches by 6 inches.

Stopped ends and angles are made for all coping bricks.

Round Ended And Bull Nosed Bricks 30035

Fig. 39.

Round Ended And Bull Nosed Bricks 30036

Fig. 40.

Round Ended And Bull Nosed Bricks 30037

Fig. 41.

Kerb Bricks for footpaths are made of the section shown in Fig. 39, and of other sections.

Tunnel Heads are of the form shown in Fig. 40, and are made generally in fireclay for parts of furnaces.

Boiler Seatings, of the shape shown in Fig. 41, are also made in fireclay.

Besides the forms of bricks above illustrated, there are several which cannot be described, such as Sink bricks, made in the form of a dished sink ■

Manger brides, which when put together form a manger; Sill bricks, which are shaped like the centre and ends of a stone till.

Colouring Bricks.1 - Bricks may be coloured either (1) by mixing substances with the clay which will produce the required colour when burnt; or (2) by dipping the brick in colouring matter after it is burnt.

The former method may be adopted when the colouring matter is cheap and plentiful; the latter when it is expensive.

(1.) When the colours are mixed with the clay it should be remembered that red ochre burns yellow.

Yellow ochre burns red.

Iron burns red at low temperature; black at high temperature.

Manganese burns black.

Light red, Indian red, French ultramarine, retain their colours when exposed even to a white heat.

The above-mentioned colours may be mixed with the clay in different proportions according to the tint required.

(2.) When bricks are to be coloured by dipping, the colouring matter is added to a mixture of linseed oil and turpentine, containing a little litharge as a drier.

The colouring matters used are as follows : -

In dark red bricks, Indian red.

„ blue „ French ultramarine.

,, black „ manganese.

„ grey „ white lead and manganese.

The bricks are heated on an iron plate, and dipped when hot, then slightly washed with cold water, and allowed to dry.

If the brick be burnt after being dipped, it will be covered with a glaze.

The colour penetrates about 1/8 inch into ordinary porous bricks (not so far into terracotta), and it stands the weather well.

If the bricks cannot conveniently be heated and dipped, the liquid may be heated and laid on.