Vandyke Brown is an earthy mineral pigment of dark-brown colour. It is durable both in oil and in water, and is useful for graining.

Purple Brown is of a reddish-brown colour. It should be used with boiled oil; and a little varnish and driers for outside work.

Burnt Sienna is produced by burning raw sienna (see above). It is "the best colour for shading gold."1

Brown Ochre is another name for spruce ochre (see above).

Spanish Brown is also an ochre.

Brown Pink is a vegetable pigment often of a greenish hue. It works well in water and oil, but dries badly, and will not keep its colour when mixed with white lead.

Bistre is from wood or peat soot. Vandyke Brown, Cassel Earth, Egyptian Brown are bituminous earths. Asphaltum is bitumen, and Sepia comes from the cuttle fish. Light Cappagh Brown or Euchrome and Deep Cappagh Brown or Mineral Brown are from bog earth and manganese.2


Carmine, made from the cochineal insect, is the most brilliant red pigment known It is, however, too expensive for ordinary house painting, and is not durable. It is sometimes used for internal decoration.

1 Davidson.

2 Seddon.

Red Lead has already been described (see p. 408). Ground by itself in oil or varnish it forms a durable pigment, or it may be mixed with ochres. White lead and metallic salts generally destroy its colour.

Vermilion is a sulphide of mercury found in a natural state as Cinnabar. The best comes from China.

Artificial vermilion is also made both in China and on the Continent from a mixture of sulphur and mercury.

Genuine vermilion is very durable, but this pigment is sometimes adulterated with red lead, etc., and then will not weather.


Vermilion can be tested by heating it in a test tube. If genuine it should entirely volatilise.

Pure powdered vermilion crushed between sheets of paper should not change colour.

Antimony Vermilion (see p. 408).

German Vermilion is the tersulphide of antimony and of an orange-red colour.

Indian Red is a ground haematite ore brought from Bengal. It is sometimes artificially made by calcining sulphate of iron. The tints vary, but a rosy hue is considered the best.

It may be used with turpentine and a little varnish to produce a dull surface, drying rapidly, or with boiled oil and a little driers, in which case a glossy surface will be produced, drying more slowly.

Chinese Red and Persian Red are chromates of lead, produced by boiling white lead with a solution of bichromate of potash. The tint of Persian red is obtained by the employment of sulphuric acid. These paints are much used for painting pillar post boxes.1

Light Red is a burnt ochre. It shares the characteristics of raw ochres described at p. 415.

Venetian Red is obtained by heating sulphate of iron produced as a waste product at tin and copper works. It is often adulterated by mixing sulphate of lime with it during the manufacture. When pure it is known as Bright Red.2

" Special tints of purple and brown are frequently required which greatly enhance the value of the material. These tints should be obtained in the process of manufacture, and not produced by mixing together a variety of different shades of colour. When the tint desired is attempted to be obtained by this latter course it is never so good, and the pigments produced are known in the trade as ' faced colours,' and are of inferior value." 1

Rose Pink is a chalk or whiting stained with a tincture of Brazil wood. It fades very quickly, but is used for paperhangings, common distemper, and for staining cheap furniture.

Dutch Pink is a similar substance made from quercitron bark.1

Lakes are made by precipitating coloured vegetable tinctures by means of alum and carbonate of potash. The alumina combines with the organic colouring matter and separates it from the solution.3

The tincture used varies in the different descriptions of lake. The best, made from cochineal or madder, is very expensive.

The colour is not a durable one, and dries slowly. It mixes well with white lead, and is used for internal work.

Drop Lake is made by dropping a mixture of Brazil wood through a funnel on to a slab. The drops are dried and mixed into paste with gum water. It is sometimes called Brazil Wood Lake.

Scarlet Lake is made from cochineal, and so are Florentine Lake, Hamburg Lake, Chinese Lake, Roman Lake, Venetian Lake, and Carminaled Lake.

1 Dent.

2 Seddon.

3 Ure.

Oranges - Chrome Orange is a chromate of lead, brighter than vermilion, but less durable.

Orange Ochre is a bright yellow ochre burnt to give it warmth of tint. It dries and works well in water and oil, and is very durable.1 It is known also as Spanish Ochre.

Mars Orange is also an ochre.

Orange Red is produced by a further oxidation than is required for red lead. It is a brighter and better pigment.2

Greens may of course be made by mixing blue and yellow pigments, but such mixtures are less durable than those produced direct from copper, arsenic, etc. The latter are, however, very objectionable for use in distemper, or on wall papers, etc., as they are injurious to health.

Brunswick Green of the best kind is made by treating copper with sal-ammoniac. Chalk, lead, and alum are sometimes added. It has rather a bluish tinge; dries well in oil, is durable, and not poisonous.

Ordinary Brunswick green is made by mixing chromate of lead and Prussian blue with sulphate of baryta.

Mineral Green is made from bi-basic carbonate of copper. It weathers well.

Verdigris is acetate of copper. It furnishes a bluish-green colour, durable in oil or varnish, but not in water. It dries rapidly, but is not a safe pigment to use.l

Green Verditer is a carbonate of copper and lime.

Prussian Green is made by mixing different substances with Prussian blue.

There are several other greens made from copper, such as Brighton Green, Malachite, Mountain Green, Marine Green, Saxon, African, French Greens, Patent Green, etc. etc.

Emerald Green is made of verdigris mixed with a solution of arsenious acid. It is of a very brilliant colour, but is very poisonous, is difficult to grind, anil dries badly in oil. It should be purchased ready ground in oil, in which case the poisonous particles do not fly about, and the difficulty of grinding is avoided.3

Scheele's or Mitis-Green and Vienna Green are also arsenites of copper, and highly poisonous.

Chrome Green should be made from the oxide of chromium, and is very durable.

An inferior chrome green is made, however, by mixing chromate of lead and Prussian blue as above mentioned, and is called Brunswick green.

The chrome should be free from acid, or the colour will fade. It may be tested by placing it for several days in strong sunlight.

Terre Verte is a natural coloured clay.

Rinman's Green is composed of cobalt and ferrous oxide of zinc.