•one of stretchers on the face of the work, the bricks only break joint properly at every other joint - i.e., one joint in two, as shown in fig. 38; whereas, by alternating the headers and stretchers in every course, though the same defect has to be contended with, it is in lesser degree, viz., only in the proportion of one unbroken joint in three, as shown in fig. 39, instead of one in two, as fig. 38. To remedy this, recourse has to be had to the use of 1/4-bricks, called closers, which are placed at the angles or plumbings, the only places where they are legitimate and allowed in good brickwork. This gives a three-quarter bond, which means that the joint is broken either in the centre of a header or on the first or third quarter of the stretcher, as shown on fig. 40.

Fig. 39.

While dealing with closers it will be well to point out that there are three kinds of closers, as follows: -

Queen closers, or through quarters, as fig. 41, an ordinary closer being shown on fig. 42.

King closers are cut to shape, as fig. 43, showing 2 1/4-inch face, and, with 4 1/2-inch at back, 9 inches inwards.

Bats may be either 1/4, 1/2, or 3/4 bats, according to the proportion they bear to the size of a whole brick.

Having got all our materials, and their several sizes, positions, and duties assigned, it will be as well to emphasise a few points and rules which must be adhered to in all kinds of bond before giving a description of the varieties of bond.

## Structure Of Brickwork

The cardinal points of brickwork, to be attended to under all circumstances, are: -

1. To place a closer next to the first header in each alternate course where there is a plumbing - -i.e., after the header, at each and every angle where a bricklayer has to use his plumb-rule to mark the upright line correctly perpendicular, whether it be at an angle of the building, window or door jamb, projection or recess. There can be no exception. The student must also note that the brickwork in each course is started at both ends, that is, at each plumbing, and worked towards the centre between the two plumbings. Therefore any odd-sized bricks, to make up given lengths, must come in the middle, and there only; and every closer must be within 7 inches of every angle or plumbing.

Fig. 41.

Fig. 42.

Fig. 43.

2. To bear in mind that the closers go in pairs in the same course - i.e., one must be placed at each end, or else there would be a toothing at the other end, as shown in fig. 44; the correct and only way to make the work in order being as in fig. 45, which shows a closer at each end, and at each jamb of the window.

3. To take care that the closer (or 1/4-brick) goes through the whole thickness of the wall, and in a broken line, if possible; a similar defect to the last-mentioned being the result of inattention to this rule; vide the comparison of lengths of figs. 46 and 47, representing the plans of the heading course, with closer for a wall 18 inches thick.

Fig. 44.

4. To tie internal angles, where possible, with headers; 2 1/4 inches showing in elevation, and the other 2 1/4 inches being within the angle of the wall.

Fig. 45.

5. To start every heading course at both ends, as in fig. 48a, filling in according to the bond specified; and the stretching course must begin at both ends, as shown in fig. 48b the filling in being according to bond specified.

Fig. 46.

Fig. 47.

Fig. 48a.

Fig. 48b.