Stone dressings are used for the ornamental finishings of a building, being worked to various details out of free-working stones; and they may be said to include the following different members (vide figs. 214, etc.): -
Plinths. the horizontal course A, on fig. 214, which can be either chamfered, as shown in fig. 215, or moulded, as fig. 216, a "set-off" generally taking place at this level.
Sills, as at B, on fig. 214, are the finish to the bottom of openings for windows, in contrast to steps for doors, their object being to throw off the water which naturally would collect on a flat surface. They can be plain, as shown in elevation and section in figs. 217 and 218, or moulded, as figs. 219 and 220. They should project not less than 2 inches beyond the wall line, and be throated (as at X) on the underside, to make the water drop down.
Fig. 217. Elevation.
Sills are built into the jambs from 3 to 6 inches; the portion on which the first jamb, brick, or stone is bedded truly level as a bed to start from bein.; called a stooling, or seat (as A on figs, 217 and 219); the weathering at B being stopped and worked up to it, and the moulding mitred and returned and stopped, as on figs. 219 and 220. It is also necessary that sills be grooved, to receive the lower half of a metal tongue, of which the upper half is also let into the underside of the wood sill, to stop any draught from getting between the beds, as at C, figs. 218 and 220; and stone sills are only bedded in mortar under the jambs and mullions to prevent cracking on the building taking its settlement; they are "pointed up" afterwards.
Elevation. Fig. 219.
Section Fig 222.
Heads, as C on fig. 214, support the wall above the opening, and may be either plain and square, as figs. 221 and 222, moulded, as figs. 223 and 224, the moulding being stopped at the jamb, or stop-chamfered, as figs. 225 and 226 - the heads in the preceding cases being revealed for the head of the frame, as marked X in figs. 223 and 224, whereas fig. 226 is plain at the back.
Jambs, D on fig. 214, are the finishings to the angles of openings, where stone is used instead of bricks, each stone being made of such dimensions as will work in with the bricks without cutting. They may be either moulded plain or chamfered - as the heads; and those which are the wider on the face (as at i, figs. 227 and 228) are called "out-bands," and the narrower ones (as at 2, figs. 227 and 229) are called "in-bands," because they go inwards beyond the reveal, and are checked or revealed out, for the frame, as shown on plans (figs. 228 and 229). They can be moulded or chamfered on the edge.
Midlions are the uprights between two lights of a window, as X on fig.230 and they may be either square on plan, as at A, revealed, as B, or moulded and panelled, as C (vide fig. 231).
Transoms divide the window-lights horizontally, as Tr on fig. 230, being weathered on the top bed and throated underneath, as fig. 232, and with stoolings, like sills, to give the perpendicular members a level bed to start from.
Hoods or Labels are mouldings, either worked on the solid head or of thin stone moulded on the edge, as fig. 233. They are placed over window and door-heads to give them a greater effect.
Strings are longitudinal horizontal courses, either plain or moulded, running round a building and dividing it in height, as it were, into floors, as E, fig. 214; or simply a continuation of the sills between openings, as F. Fig. 234 gives sections of a plain weathered and throated and a moulded string course.
Cornices are the longitudinal mouldings which go along the top of the building, as H, fig. 214, being weathered on top and more or less moulded, as fig. 335. When they are quite plain, and only used for supporting the gutter of the roof, they are called eaves courses.
Blocking courses are the top members or crown of a cornice, as G, fig. 214, and X, fig. 335; whereas a frieze is the plain part below, and the small moulding below that is called the necking.
Parapets are thin walls, at the eaves of a roof, behind which the gutters are formed; and they take the place of the blocking courses, where greater height is required.
Balustrades are used for a similar purpose; but they are of a lighter and more ornamental appearance, consisting of turned balusters enclosed within a base and cornice, as fig. 236.
Quoins are the stones used at the angles of the building, being made to range with the brickwork. They vary in size from 18 inches to 14 inches on the one face by from 10 to 13 inches high, and the return face would be 9 or 14 inches wide, the stones being of the same size, but placed alternately to show a long face in front and a short one on the return, and vice versa, as figs. 237 and 238. Of course, in stonework they are larger in size, according to the character of the building.
Plain-cut quoins are those shown in figs. 237 and 238. Drafted and hammer-dressed quoins are of the same sizes, but with the faces worked, as previously explained in Chapter V (Building Stones And Stone Walling. Stone As A Building Material).
Drafted and diamond-picked, rock-faced, vermiculated, tooled, or chiselled quoins are similar in size and application, but worked in a different manner as the name implies (vide also Chapter V (Building Stones And Stone Walling. Stone As A Building Material).).
Rusticated quoins are as fig. 239, hiring a rebate sunk out of every alternate stone at the bed.