This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol2: Masonry. Carpentry. Joinery", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
Heading Bond. When all the courses present the end brick in the face of the wall, the wall will then be composed entirely of headers; this method, however, is only adapted for use in sharp-curved walls, as it possesses little longitudinal bond.
Stretching Bond. When all the courses consist of stretchers, the wall formed should only be used for partitions that are but 4 inches in thickness; where the wall is thicker than this, the method cannot be followed, as there would be no transverse bond whatever.
English Bond. Though not much used in this country, this is probably the best and strongest method of bricklaying. In English bond, the face of the wall shows header and stretcher courses alternately, as shown in Fig. 77. The longitudinal bond is obtained by the use of quarter-bat closers, marked c, and placed in alternate courses, as shown. This is without doubt the best and simplest method to follow in all work when strength is required, as by its use a complete and thorough transverse bond is procured. It will be observed that the heart of the wall consists entirely of heading bond, and that the joints of the heading course, as at a, are well bonded by the headers of the stretching course, as at b.
The English bond can also be accomplished by the use of the three-quarter bats, and many authorities prefer them to quarter-bat closers, as by using three-quarter bats only one mortar joint is required in place of two.
An objection frequently urged against the appearance of the English bond on the face of the wall, is the recurrence of so many headers, which give the work the appearance of being constructed of so many tile-like blocks. The use of diminutive blocks of either brick or stone, in heavy walls, always tends to reduce the apparent strength of the structure, and it loses much of the effect of permanence, a very effective factor in good design.
212. The Flemish bond is used to overcome, in a measure, this belittling effect, and is one where only twothirds of the number of headers that occur in English bond are exposed, and each course is composed of a header and stretcher alternately. The method of laying brick in Flemish bond is shown in Fig. 78. The lap in this case is obtained by the use of three-quarter bats, both at the external and internal angles of the wall, as shown at a on the external, and at b on the internal angles. In Flemish bond the closers occur in the heart of the wall, just as was shown in English bond; these are quarter, half, and three-quarter bats, as shown at c.
It will be seen by referring to Fig. 78, that owing to the headers and stretchers being placed on the inner side of the wall immediately opposite those on the outer face, both faces will appear exactly alike when thus arranged; the wall is then said to be built in double Flemish bond.
By carefully examining Fig. 78, it will be seen that only one-half of the body of the 4-inch thickness is bonded to the adjacent thickness; in other words, the upper bed of each face stretcher is only bound to the inner thickness by means of the width of one header; in this respect, the strength of wall is sacrificed for the sake of appearance. A continuous vertical strip 2 inches wide occurs on each side of the face headers, which has no bond other than that of the adhesion of the mortar. To obviate this defect, the outer face is sometimes built in Flemish bond and the inner face in English bond.