235. This is very often specified under carpenter work, and is by some considered as belonging more especially to that trade, but it is also a matter of concern to the mason.

It is extremely important that the joists should be securely anchored to the walls, as the danger of the walls being thrown outwards, either from settlement of the foundations, or from pressure exerted against the inside of the wall, is sometimes very great, and should never be overlooked by the architect or contractor. Many walls might have been saved from falling and having to be rebuilt, had they been properly anchored. A high wind coming up during the progress of the work, and while the mortar is green, has often blown down walls that would have remained intact had proper attention been paid to the anchoring.

236. The floors should be tied to the brick walls at least once in every 6 feet, by means of iron anchors spiked to the floor joists and built into the wall. Sometimes a box anchor or floor hanger is used.

Fig. 96 shows the four forms of iron anchors that are generally used. The one shown at (a) is made of 1/4" X 1 3/4" iron about 2 feet long; the end built in the wall is made of a 9"x5/8" rod with the end of the anchor drawn around it.

The anchor (d) is made of 2" x 3/16' iron,2 feet long; the end that goes in the wall is cut as shown, and about 4 inches is turned up at right angles to the end of the anchor; the other end is twisted around so that it can be nailed to the side of the joists, as shown in Fig. 97.

When the brick wall is on the side or rear, and the appearance of the wall is not considered, it is better to let the anchor run clear through the wall.

The anchor shown at (c) in Fig. 96 is used with this method of anchoring. It is made of 1 3/4 x 1/4" iron, 2 feet 6 inches long, and has a plate of 2"rx4"xi" iron, doweled in on the outer end. An anchor of this kind gets a better hold on the wall than when it stops in the middle of the wall. It may also be used for building into the middle of the wall, the same as (a) and (b).

When an especially strong anchor is required, the form shown at (d), Fig. 96, is considered the best. This style of anchor is made bv flattening out a 4-inch bolt so as to make a 2"x1/4" portion to spike to the joist, and is provided with a 5-inch cast-iron star washer. A nut is placed on the outer side of the washer so that the anchor may be tightened up if necessary after the walls are built.

Construction Details Anchoring The Walls 98

Fig. 96.

237. Fig. 97 shows the method of anchoring the joists to the walls; a is the brick wall; b, the wooden joist; and c, the iron anchor. The anchors should always be spiked to the side of the joist or girder near the bottom as shown. If the anchor is placed near the top of the joist, the destructive effect on the wall, should the joist fall, will be materially increased.

Fig. 98 shows the method of anchoring the joist to the walls where the joist and the walls run parallel. The anchor is let into the floor joists, as shown at a, and it should be long enough to run over two or three joists, in order to give proper stiffness. The form of anchor shown at (c), in Fig. 96, is the best for this purpose, and the end plate b can either come outside the wall or be built into the brickwork. At c. Fig. 98, is shown the floor joist, and d shows the top of the 12-inch brick wall.

Construction Details Anchoring The Walls 99

Fig. 97

Construction Details Anchoring The Walls 100

Fig. 98.