61. In the succeeding pages, descriptions of the illustrations given cannot be more than general, as the chief object is to give examples which are standards of artistic and ornamental design. Instruction of the student in smith-work has not been attempted, nor has it been deemed advisable to try to cover the complete field of useful and ornamental objects made in wrought iron, but to discuss only a small number of the ones more commonly seen and used in house building. That a knowledge of the tools and the methods employed in working iron may be made known to the student, and that the designs shown may thereby be better understood, the following short description is given: The few primary tools consist of a forge, an anvil, a pair of tongs, an ordinary blacksmith's hammer, a fuller, a set of punches (say, three sizes each of square and round), three swage hammers, a set hammer, a flatter, and a riveting hammer. The fuller and the swage hammers are usually called top swages, as a duplicate of the hammer face, which fits in a hole in the top of the anvil, is called a bottom fuller or swage. The making of grilles and scrolls by bending and riveting is described under another head. Any two or more parts joined while hot are called welded, and all objects worked from a single piece are called forged. Whether welded or forged, the iron must first be brought to a white heat, and work commenced with the metal at this color, and continued until the iron assumes a deep cherry red, although, of course, this will somewhat depend on the grade of iron used. When the object to be welded or wrought is placed on the anvil, the blows at first should be light, and gradually increased in force as the metal cools, or the forging is likely to be knocked needlessly out of shape. To convert a section of a flat bar into a round one, the bar is brought to the proper heat in the forge fire and then laid across a bottom fuller set in the anvil, where, with a pair of tongs, it is held edge up, with the fuller hammer on the upper side. In this position it is indented until the approximate size of the round is made. The bar will now look as though it had a nick cut out of it on each side, the space between being the guide for the round part. The bar is now again heated, and a bottom swage put in the hole in the top of the anvil, and the bar is placed on the anvil and worked to a rough round. It is then once more heated, and this time placed in the bottom swage, the smith holding the top swage in place, while the helper strikes the top of it repeatedly as the bar is drawn between the swages, producing an even smooth finish. In the case of a fence railing or window guard, where the bars or pickets are to pass through the horizontal rails, and it is desired that the rails shall be of a uniform thickness where bars pass through, it is necessary that the rail shall be what is termed upset, that is, heated and driven together endwise to produce a bulge at the desired portion; or a small piece may be welded on at the point where each bar is to pass through; the rail is then heated, and the required hole is made with a square or round punch. After reheating, the rail is passed over the anvil, evening up the thickness where necessary, and is then finished with the flatter, to remove all the marks of the other tools. If two bars are to be joined at right angles, they are placed one over the other at a white heat and welded together with a common smith's hammer, after which the slight bulging at the juncture is worked out. In especially fine work, a small piece is cut from each bar at the point of welding, though this is seldom necessary in ordinary practice. Surface cuts, indentations, etc., for the production of diaper designs or patterns on plain surfaces, should be made at a low heat with fullers set in the bench, or anvil, as the case may require, a guide or spacer being so placed as to keep the work uniform and true. The finials of posts and knobs on fence bars are first roughly forged out by hand, and then placed in a die under a trip hammer; or, where this is not at hand, the die is struck with sledges. When small work is welded, the tool marks are removed by the set hammer, which is simply a small flatter.

62. In making festoons of leaves or flowers, or of both, a stem should first be made of the required length, and the pieces for the leaves cut from thin bar or strap iron, on which the individual stems of the flowers are welded. The shape of the leaf or flower is then worked out on a soft metal block, as described for leafwork. When all the leaves and flowers are made, the main stem and a single leaf or flower are heated in the forge and welded together, this process being repeated with each leaf and flower until all are in place; they are then finished up and put in exact position or aline-ment after the metal is cold. When an object is to be forged out of a single piece of material, it is heated in the forge and worked under the hammer to the required shape or form; this is the most expensive part of wrought-iron work.