This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol4: Plumbing And Gas-Fitting, Heating And Ventilation, Painting And Decorating, Estimating And Calculating Quantities", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
97. Brushes are of various shapes and sizes according- to the different purposes for which each is used, and are made of different materials, adapted to suit the character of the work and vehicle to be spread. Hog's bristle, camel's hair, badger's hair, and* sable are the most common materials used in the manufacture of paint brushes, though bear's hair and ox hair are also utilized for special work.
98. The largest brushes, such as shown in Fig. 7, are made of bristle and called pound brushes. They vary in size, being distinguished under the marks, "1-0," "2-0," "3-0," etc., up to "8-0," which is the largest size, and arc made in three shapes, round, flat, and elliptical, with flat or chisel-shaped edges. The round and elliptical brushes are used most frequently, as they hold a considerable quantity of paint, and will spread it over a large surface without redipping. They are also used as dusters to clean the surface to which the paint is to be applied, and such usage softens up the bristles and makes them more serviceable when subsequently used as paint brushes.
99. The bristle brushes, next smaller in size to the pound brushes, are classed under the general name of tools, but are, in some cases, distinguished under a qualifying term, such as sash tools, etc., one of which is shown in Fig. 8. Tools are flat, as shown in Fig. 9; round, as in Fig. 8; elliptical, chisel edged, etc., similar to pound brushes, and are used in connection with the latter to spread the color on the more inaccessible parts, such as the moldings around panels, sash bars, dentil courses, railings, and all other parts where the larger brush would be too cumbersome. The smallest bristle brushes are called fitches, and like the tools, they are usually qualified by another name to designate their particular purpose. The ordinary fitch is shown in Fig. 10, and is precisely similar to the sash tool shown in Fig. 8, but smaller in size. Figs. 11 and 12 show two sizes of a brush, known as the lining fltch, used in connection with a straightedge to produce straight lines or stripes. In the smaller size, the bristles are held in place by a piece of tightly wound cord, while the larger one is bound in tin.
100. Varnish brushes are usually flat with a chisel edge, and made of a finer quality of hair than the ordinary paint brushes. Bristle varnish brushes are used for ordinary work and may be obtained in sets of four, as shown in Fig. 13, but for furniture and other fine work, camel's-hair, badger, or sable varnish brushes, such as shown in Fig. 14, should be used. There are many other brushes used in the house-painter's work, each used for some specific purpose to be hereafter described. All brushes should be thoroughly washed after each using and hung up by the handles, and laid over a ledge to dry, so that the bristles will not become bent or in any way out of shape. The larger paint brushes may be readily preserved in a soft condition, by boring holes through their handles and suspending them in a tub of water on nails driven for the purpose, as shown in Fig. 15. The water should just cover the bristles and not reach the binding, as the latter is likely to swell and burst if permitted to get thoroughly soaked.