2 7. Wash tubs are made of various materials. The cheapest varieties are made of wood, the ends and partitions being rabbeted into the sides and bottom. The joints should be well painted with white lead, and should be drawn tight by means of iron bolts. Repeated drying and wetting soon spoils the joints and rots the wood. When they become leaky, past repairing, they may be lined with tinned copper, galvanized iron or zinc. As a rule, it is best to avoid their use.

28. Iron tubs, either galvanized or porcelain enameled, are cleanly, durable, and generally satisfactory.

The only drawback to enameled tubs is that the enamel will crack eventually and peel off. The corners are all rounded and no crevices exist in which dirt may accumulate or which will harbor vermin.

29. Porcelain tubs, or the brown glazed earthenware tubs, are very heavy, and require a substantial iron frame to support them. They are very durable and are easily kept clean. The corners are all rounded off to prevent dirt from lodging therein. If finished flat on top they are usually supplied with wood rims of ash to protect their edges. The rims should be set in red-lead putty before being bolted down tight.

Porcelain tubs of the finest grades are usually finished on top with a roll rim.

Laundry Tubs 16

30. Tubs are also made of soap-stone or slate slabs, which are joined by red-lead cement and are held together by-rods and iron frames. Inferior soapstone will crack if subjected to hot water. These tubs are liable to accumulate grease and dirt in the sharp corners unless carefully cleaned.

31. In Fig. 16 is shown a set of two porcelain or glazed earthenware wash tubs A, A. They are set upon two cast-iron stands B. An ash frame C is bolted to a hard-wood strip D by long bolts E. Branches are taken from the hot and cold lead water pipes F, F1 to supply the tub cocks G.

The waste water from the tubs passes through a lead S trap H, connected as shown. The trap is protected against siphonage by a l 1/2-inch lead back-vent pipe I. One of the tubs has part of its inner surface corrugated as at J. This is often used as a scrub board.

Fig. 10.

Laundry tubs are sometimes fitted with wooden covers, which are hinged at the back. When these are used, the faucets must be placed within the tubs, the connections being made through holes in the back. This arrangement is objectionable, because the faucets occupy too much of the interior space of the tubs. The goods will catch and tear on the nozzles of the faucets, and the laundress is likely to bruise her hands upon them.

Tubs vary in length from 24 to 30 inches, and in depth from 14 to 16 inches. They are usually 22 to 24 inches wide at the top, and taper on the front side to 15 inches or more at the bottom. They are generally set up in groups of three. The rim of the tubs should be set about 32 inches above the floor.

Each tub should be fitted with an overflow, and an outlet plug and strainer. These may all be connected to one waste pipe. One 2-inch trap is sufficient for the three tubs. Each tub should have its own hot and cold water faucets. The faucets should, if practicable, be placed above the tubs, as in Fig. 16.

In fitting up a set of tubs, provision should be made for attaching a clothes wringer to the right-hand end of the right-hand tub, with a space of at least 2 feet between this tub and any wall to the right for a clothes basket.