This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol4: Plumbing And Gas-Fitting, Heating And Ventilation, Painting And Decorating, Estimating And Calculating Quantities", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
Size of Pipe. Inches.
Distance Apart. Inches.
Distance Apart. Inches.
184. Vertical pipes of lead are usually supported, where they pass through floors, by means of a flange or collar, which is wiped to the pipe, or a flange joint is made at that point. The diameter of the flange should be about 2 inches larger than that of the pipe, to give room for wiping.
185. Wrought-iron pipes may be fastened in place by common drive hooks, but where a good appearance is desired, they should be fastened with bands, which are secured to the walls by screws, as shown in Fig. 67. The band or strap a should be made of wrought iron, tinned.
Brass pipe may be similarly supported, making the bands of brass. It is usually supported, however, by specially made clamps or pipe hangers, which are first attached to the walls, the pipes being afterwards laid into them and locked there by closing the outer half of the clamp, which is hinged to the main body. Such supports usually hold the pipe at a little distance from the walls; this prevents vermin from lodging around them, and also allows them to be polished conveniently.
186. Cast-iron soil and vent pipes should be strongly secured in place. Vertical stacks should rest upon a solid support at the bottom. If an elbow occurs at the base of the stack, it should be provided with a flat foot, or heel rest, as shown at a, Fig. 68.
The weight of the pipe should be borne entirely by the base support. The pipe should be held in place by means of hooks or bands, which are placed at intervals of 5 feet or less, according to the nature of the work. The pipe may also be secured against the face of a stone wall by means of a wrought-iron band a, as shown in Fig. 69. Two holes b, b are cut into the stone, and the ends of the band are calked in the holes with lead. This style of fastening is neat and reliable.
All hooks or bands should clasp the pipe close under the hub, or around it, and should not be placed midway between the joints, if it is possible to avoid it.
If the pipes stand in a chase or groove in the wall, they may be fastened by means of clamps, or pipe rests, a, which are secured in notches b, b cut in the wall, as shown in Fig. 70.
187. Care must be taken that the fastenings are so arranged that the pipe will be free to contract and expand with the changes of temperature without loosening itself, or tearing the fastenings loose from the walls. Buildings are always liable to settle, and this must be kept in mind when locating the pipe fastenings.
Iron drain pipes which run inside of basements or cellars, should be thoroughly supported by wrought-iron straps fastened to the beams overhead, or else they should be supported at short intervals upon brick piers, or by wall hooks driven into the brick or stone walls.
A substantial pier should always be placed under each stack. In all cases a firm support should be placed under the junction of the stack with the inclined drain pipe. All stacks should be supported independently of the main drain, so as to relieve the inclined pipe of the weight of the stack.