An important matter in wreath construction is to have a knowledge of how to arrange the risers in and around a well-hole. A great deal of labor and material is saved through it; also a far better appearance to the finished rail may be secured.

In level-landing stairways, the easiest example is the one shown in Fig. 123, in which the radius of the central line of rail is made equal to one-half the width of a tread. In the diagram the radius is shown to be 5 inches, and the treads 10 inches. The risers are placed in the springing, as at a and a. The elevation of the tangents by this arrangement will be, as shown, one level and one inclined, for each piece of wreath. When in this position, there is no trouble in finding the angle of the tangent as required on the face-mould, owing to that angle, as in every such case, being a right angle, as shown at w; also no special bevel will have to be found, because the upper bevel of the pitch-board contains the angle required.

The same results are obtained in the example shown in Fig. 124, in which the radius of the well-hole is larger than half the width of a tread, by placing the riser a at a distance from c equal to half the width of a tread, instead of at the springing as in the preceding example.

In Fig. 125 is shown a case where the risers are placed at a distance from c equal to a full tread, the effect in respect to the tangents of the face-mould and bevel being the same as in the two preceding examples. In Fig. 126 is shown the plan of Fig. 123; in Fig. 127, the plan of Fig. 124; and in Fig. 128, the plan of Fig. 125. For the wreaths shown in all these figures, there will be no necessity of springing the plank, which is a term used in handrailing to denote the twisting of the wreath; and no other bevel than the one at the upper ' end of the pitch-board will be required. This type of wreath, also, is the one that is required at the top of a landing when the rail of the flight intersects with a level-landing rail.

Fig. 138. Development of Face Moulds for Plan, Fig. 137.

Fig. 138. Development of Face-Moulds for Plan, Fig. 137.

In Fig. 129 is shown a very simple method of drawing the face-mould for this wreath from the pitch-board. Make a c equal to the radius of the plan central line of rail as shown at the curve in Fig. 130. From where line c c" cuts the long side of the pitch-board, the line c" a" is drawn at right angles to the long edge, and is made equal to the length of the plan tangent a c, Fig. 130. The curve is drawn by means of pins and string or a trammel.

In Fig. 131 is shown a quarter-turn between two flights. The correct method of placing the risers in and around the curve, is to put the last one in the first flight one-half a step from springing c, and the first one in the second flight one-half a step from a, leaving a space in the curve equal to a full tread. By this arrangement, as shown in Fig. 132, the pitch-line of the tangents will equal the pitch of the connecting flight, thus securing the second easiest condition of tangents for the face-mould - namely, as shown, two equal tangents. For this wreath, only one bevel will be needed, and it is made up of the radius of the plan central line of the rail o c, Fig. 131, for base, and the line 1-2, Fig. 132, for altitude, as shown in Fig. 133.

The bevel shown in this figure has been previously explained in Figs. 105 and 106. It is to be applied to both ends of the wreath.

The example shown in Fig. 134 is of a well-hole having a riser in the center. If the radius of the plan central line of rail is made equal to one-half a tread, the pitch of tangents will be the same as of the flights adjoining, thus securing two equal tangents for the two sections of wreath. In this figure the tangents of the face-mould are developed, and also the central line of the rail, as shown over and above each quadrant and upon the pitch-line of tangents.

The same method may be employed in stairways having obtuse-angle and acute-angle plans, as shown in Fig. 135, in which two flights are placed at an obtuse angle to each other. If the risers shown at a and a are placed one-half a tread from c, this will produce in the elevation a pitch-line over the tangents equal to that over the flights adjoining, as shown in Fig. 136, in which also is shown the face-mould for the wreath that will span over the curve from one flight to another.

In Fig. 137 is shown a flight having the same curve at a landing. The same arrangement is adhered to respecting the placing of the risers, as shown at a and a. In Fig. 138 is shown how to develop the face-moulds.



Tracy & Swartwout, Architects; Ballantyne & Evans, Associated. Reproduced by courtesy of "The Architectural Review."