This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
The Bremer flaming arc lamp was introduced commercially in 1899, and since some of its principles are incorporated in many of the lamps on the market to-day, it will be briefly described here. The diagram shown in Fig. 39 illustrates the main features of this lamp. The electrodes are mounted at an angle and an electromagnet is placed above the arc for the purpose of keeping the arc from creeping up and injuring the economizer, and also for the purpose of spreading the arc out and increasing its surface. The vapor from the arc is condensed on the economizer and this coating acts as a reflector, throwing the light downward. The economizer serves to limit the air supplied to the arc and thus increases the life of the electrodes. The inclined position of the carbons was suggested by the fact that in the impregnated carbons a slag was formed which gave trouble when the electrodes were mounted in the usual manner. By using the electrodes in this position there is little if any obstruction to the light which passes directly downward from the arc.
Fig. 39. Diagram of Bremer Flaming Arc.
Bremer's original electrodes contained compounds of calcium, strontium, magnesium, etc., as well as boracic acid. Electrodes as employed in the various lamps to-day differ greatly in their make-up. Some use impregnated carbons, other use carbons with a core containing the flaming materials, and metallic wires are added in some cases. The life of electrodes for flaming lamps is not great, depending upon their length and somewhat upon the type of lamp. The maximum life of the treated carbons is in the neighborhood of 20 hours.
The color of the light from the flaming arc is yellow when calcium salts are used as the main impregnating compound, and the majority of the lamps installed use electrodes giving a yellow light.
By employing more strontium, a red or pink light is produced, while if a white light is wanted, barium salts are used. Calcium gives the most efficient service and strontium comes between this and barium.
The distribution curves in Fig. 40 illustrate the relative economics of the different materials. Modern electrodes contain not more than 15% of added material and it is customary to find the salts applied as a core to the pure carbon sticks. The electrodes are made of a small diameter in order to maintain a steady light and this partially accounts for their short life.
Fig. 40. Distribution Curves of a Luminous Arc.
The feeding mechanisms employed differ greatly. They may be classified as: Clock, gravity-feed, clutch, motor, and hot-wire mechanisms. Fig. 41 illustrates a clock mechanism. This is a differential mechanism in which the shunt coils act to release a detent f which allows the electrodes to feed down and when they come in contact the series coils separate them to the proper extent for maintaining a suitable arc. In the gravity feed an electromagnet is used to operate one carbon in springing the arc and the other carbon is fed by gravity, it being prevented from dropping too far by means of a special rib formed on the electrode which comes in contact with a part of the lamp structure. Gravity feed is also employed in the clutch mechanism but here the carbons are held in one position by an electrically operated clutch which releases them only when the current is sufficiently reduced by the lengthening of the arc. In the hot-wire lamp, the wire is usually in series with the arc; the contraction and expansion of this wire is balanced against a spring and the arc is regulated by such contraction or expansion of the wire. Such a lamp is suitable for either direct or alternating current. In the motor mechanism, as applied to alternating-current lamps, a metallic-disk is actuated by differential magnets and its motion is transmitted to the electrodes to lengthen or shorten the arc accordingly as the force exerted by the series or shunt coils predominates.