This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Arcade (ar-kad). A continuous series of arches resting either on piers or columns. (See Figs. 21 and 101).
Arch (arch). A member, usually carved, spanning an opening in a wall or colonnade, and supporting the wall or other members above the opening. (See Figs. 4 and 134). In the "flat arch," the separate parts of which it is composed arc so shaped as to support one another without rising to a curve.
Architrave (ar'ki-trav). (a) The lower division of a Classic entablature; that member which rests immediately upon the column capital and supports those portions of the structure which are above it. (See Fig. 3.) (b) The ornamental moulding running around the extrados of an arch. Also called Archivolt. (See Fig. 4.) (c) Sometimes, less properly, the moulded enrichments on the face of the jambs and lintels of a door, window, or other opening. Also called Antepagment. (See Figs. 84 and 95).
Archivolt (ar'ki-volt). The series of mouldings on the face of an arch following the contour of the extrados, and ending upon the imposts. (See Fig. 4).
Archway (arch'wa). A way or passage under an arch. (See Fig. 4).
Aries (arl). A city of southern France, celebrated for its many Roman remains.
Arris (ar'is). The projecting angle or edge formed by the meeting of two sui faces; particularly the edges of mouldings, and the sharp edges between adjacent channels in the Doric column. (See B, C, and D, Fig. 49).
Artemis (ar'te-mis). Greek name of the Roman goddess Diana. Daughter of Zeus and Latona, and twin sister of Apollo. Born on the island of Delos. One of the earliest instances of the use of the Greek Ionic Order seems to have been on a temple at Ephesus dedicated to this goddess.
Assisi (as-se'se). A city in central Italy containing several Roman ruins, including a Corinthian temple to Minerva belonging to the Augustan era.
Astragal (as'tra-gal). A small, convex moulding, generally ornamented or cut into the form of a string of beads. Used in Classic architecture, especially in connection with the egg-and-dart moulding, and between the faces of the different projections of the Ionic and Corinthian architraves. (See A and G, Plate XL, and Plat, XLIII).
Astylar (a-sti'lar). A Classic style of building without columns, substituting in their place a plain wall. Atlantes (at-lan'tez). Figures or partial figures of men used in the place of columns or pilasters to support an entablature; also called telamones.
When female figures are used, they are called caryatids or caryatides.
Attic (at'ik). The upper part of a building. A story appearing in the facade of a building above the cornice and entablature. Sometimes applied to that portion of a triumphal archway above the cornice and below the crowning member, as in the Arch of Trajan at Ancona. (See Fig. 137)
Attic (at'ik). Athenian.
Attic Base A base, properly used with the Ionic order, consisting of an upper torus a scotia, and a lower torus, separated by fillets. (See A, Fig. 57).
Auditorium (au-di-to' ri-um). That portion of a public hall of assemblage intended for spectators.
Augustus (au-gus'tus). One of the Roman emperors, B. C. 27 to A. D. 14. During his reign were built the Pantheon at Rome and other well-known architectural structures, including two temples of Vesta, one in the Roman Forum and one at Tivoli.
Aurelian (au-re'li-an). One of the Roman emperors, 270-275 A. D. He built the Temple of the Sun on the Quirinal Hill. Axis ak'sis). The center line of an object or structure as seen in plan or in elevation : a straight line dividing a body into two equal parts. (See Figs.
65 and 66).
Balustrade (bal-us-trad'). A railing or wall with upper rail or coping supported by balusters. (See C, Plate XXXIV)
Band (band). A flat member or moulding of small projection. (See Fig. 61.) Base (bas). The part of a column between the upper part of the pedestal and the bottom of the shaft; or, if there is no pedestal, between the bottom of the column-shaft and the plinth; the lower projecting part of the wall of a room, consisting of a plinth and its mouldings. (See Figs. 3 and 4; also Figs. 57, 61, 111, 122, and 126).
Basilica (ba-sil'i-ka). A Roman Hall of Justice, whose general plan was afterwards adopted as the form of the early Christian church.
Basilica Julia (ba-sil'i-ka joo'li-a). The temple in the center of the Forum Julium, the first of the smaller Roman Forums, constructed by Julius Caesar in honor of his wife. (See Fig. 140).
Bassae (bas'se). A town in Arcadia, Greece, near Phigalia, noted for the Doric and Ionic Temple of Apollo, which-next to the Theseum at Athens -is the most completely preserved specimen of Classic Greek art.
Baton (ba'ton). The stem or wand supporting the cauliculi (small scrolls and leaves) of the Corinthian capital. (See Plate XVI)
Batter (batter). A backward or receding slope in the face of a wall as it rises.
Bead (b\ed). A small, half-round moulding. (See Fig. 5).
Bead-and-Reel (bed-and-rel). A much-used decorative moulding consisting of a small sphere and one or two circular discs, repeated; used only to ornament a small bead moulding. (See A and C, Plate XL).
Beak-moulding (bek-mold'ing). A moulding with a downward projecting part on its exterior edge-the whole outline somewhat resembling a bird's beak-to make a drip for rain water and prevent it from working back against the face of the wall beneath. (See M, Fig. 46).
Bell-shaped (bel'-shapt). In the form of a bell;flaring. (See Fig. 73).
Belly (bel'i). The slight swell, or increase in diameter, which sometimes occurs between the base and neck of a column. It may refer to that part near the center of the column where its diameter becomes greater than at the base (see at "Shaft," Fig. 61).