2. The character of the surface is changed from a dull black and comparatively soft nature to a bright gray coating which is much harder and which increases the life and efficiency of the filament.

Exhausting. After flashing, the filament is sealed in the bulb and the air exhausted through the tube A in Fig. 2, which shows the lamp in different stages of its manufacture. The exhaustion is accomplished by means of mechanical air pumps, supplemented by Sprengle or mercury pumps and chemicals. Since the degree of exhaustion must be high, the bulb should be heated during the process so as to drive off any gas which may cling to the glass. When chemicals are used, as is now almost universally the case, the chemical is placed in the tube A and, when heated, serves to take up much of the remaining gas. Exhaustion is necessary for several reasons:

1. To avoid oxidization of the filament.

2. To reduce the heat conveyed to the globe.

3. To prevent wear on the filament due to currents or eddies in the gas.

After exhausting, the tube A is sealed off and the lamp completed for testing by attaching the base by means of plaster of Paris. Fig. 3 shows some of the forms of completed incandescent lamps.

Voltage and Candle-Power. Incandescent lamps of the carbon type wary in size from the miniature battery and candelabra lamps to those of several hundred candle-power, though the latter are very seldom used. The more common values for the candle-power are 8, 16, 25, 32, and 50, the choice of candle-power depending on the use to be made of the lamp.

Fig. 2. Different Stages in Lamp Manufacture.

Fig. 2. Different Stages in Lamp Manufacture.

The voltage will vary depending on the method of distribution of the power. For what is known as parallel distribution, 110 or 220 volts are generally used. For the higher values of the voltage, long and slender filaments must be used, if the candle-power is to be low; and lamps of less than 16 candle-power for 220-volt circuits are not practical, owing to difficulty in manufacture. For series distribution, a low voltage and higher current is used, hence the filaments may be quite heavy. Battery lamps operate on from 4 to 24 volts, but the vast majority of lamps for general illumination are operated at or about 110 volts.

Fig. 3. Several Forms of Completed Lamps.

Fig. 3. Several Forms of Completed Lamps.

Efficiency. By the efficiency of an incandescent lamp is meant the power required at the lamp terminals per candle-power of light given. Thus, if a lamp giving an average horizontal candle-power of 16 consumes 1/2 an ampere at 112 volts, the total number of watts consumed will be 112 X 1/2 = 56, and the watts per candle-power will be 56/ 16 = 3.5. The efficiency of such a lamp is said to be 3.5 watts per candle-power, or simply watts per candle. Watts economy is sometimes used for efficiency.

The efficiency of a lamp depends on the temperature at which the filament is run. In the ordinary lamp this temperature is between 1,280° and 1,330° C, and the curve in Fig. 4 shows the increase of efficiency with the increase of temperature. The temperature attained by a filament depends on the rate at which heal is radiated and the amount of power supplied. The rate of radiation of heat is proportional to the area of the filament, the elevation in temperature, and the emissivity of the surface.

By emissivity is meant the number of heal units emitted from unit surface per degree rise in temperature above that of surrounding bodies. The bright surface of a flashed filament has a lower emissivity than the dull surface of an unheated filament, hence less energy is lost in heal radiation and the efficiency of the filament is increased.

As soon as incandescence is reached, the illumination increases much more rapidly than the emission of heat, hence the increase in efficiency shown in Fig. 4. Were it not for the rapid disintegration of the carbon at high temperature, an efficiency higher than 3.1 watts could be obtained.

Fig. 4. Efficiency Curve for Incandescent Lamp.

Fig. 4. Efficiency Curve for Incandescent Lamp.

By a special treatment of the carbon filaments, the nature of the carbon is so changed that the filaments may be run at a higher temperature and the lamps still have a life comparable to that of the 3.1-watt lamp. Lamps using these special carbon filaments are known as gem metallized filament lamps, or merely as gem lamps, and they will be described more fully later

Relation of Life to Efficiency. Ordinary Carbon Lamp. By the useful life of a lamp is meant the length of time a lamp will burn before its candle-power has decreased to such a value that it would be more economical to replace the lamp wit a new one than to continue to use at its decreased value. A decrease to 80% of the initial candle-power of carbon lamps is now taken at the point at which a lamp should be replaced, and the normal life of a lamp is in the neighborhood of 800 hours. To obtain the most economical results, such lamps should always be replaced at the end of their useful life.

In Table I are given values of efficiency and life of a 3.5-watt, 110-volt carbon lamp for various voltages impressed on the lamp. These values are plotted in Fig. 5. The curves show that a 3% increase of voltage on the lamp reduces the life by one-half, while an increase of 6% causes the useful life to fall to one-third its normal value. The effect is even greater when 3.1-watt lamps are used, but not so great with 4-watt lamps. From this we see that the regulation of the voltage used on the system must be very good if high efficiency lamps are to be used, and this regulation will determine the efficiency of the lamp to be installed.

Selection of Lamps. Ordinary Carbon Type. Lamps taking 3.1 watts per candle-power will give satisfaction only when the regulation of voltage is the best - practically a constant voltage maintained at the normal voltage of the lamp.