The real architect then supplements his drawings and specifications by personal supervision of the work as it progresses, not because the drawings are incomplete, but that the expression of individuality may not be lost by unimaginative practical workmen.

A distinction must be made between an architect and an architectural draftsman. The latter is one who, under the direction of the former, can express the architect's ideas graphically in such a way as to make them clear to the builder. Starting with the preliminary sketches as developed by the architect he is able to work up the plans, elevations and details into a finished set of drawings ready for the contractor. The architectural draftsman with added experience and opportunity may become an architect; at least it may be said that all architects begin as architectural draftsmen.

To be fully qualified for his work the architectural draftsman needs to have training and experience in a variety of subjects connected with drawing. These might be enumerated somewhat as follows: 1. He must be thoroughly familiar with the principles of Orthographic Projection. This would include the Relation of Views, Auxiliary Projections, Sections, Developed Views, Reflected Views,

Intersections, etc.

2. He must know the Architectural Symbols, and the methods of representing various forms of construction.

3. He must be acquainted with the History of Architecture. This includes a thorough working knowledge of the Architectural Orders.

4. He must know the principles of pure and applied design.

5. He must know materials, their strengths, characteristics, limitations and treatment.

6. He must be so familiar with Lettering that he can execute it rapidly and artistically on drawings, and can apply it correctly and beautifully as design in stone or bronze.

7. He should have a working knowledge of Perspective Drawing, Shades and Shadows, and Rendering.

(The skilled use of Perspective and of making rendered drawings has become something of a specialist's work and in larger offices there is usually one man who is employed on this class of work alone.)

The student should be reminded that architectural design and drafting are inseparable. Architectural drawing is not simply a mechanical operation nor a subject to be learned separately. The subject of architectural composition and design has been well presented in numerous books, and has only incidental reference in the present work but it must be understood that a knowledge of composition and style is essential to successful drafting.

In this book the Author, working from a combined experience as a practicing architect and a teacher of drawing, has brought together those fundamental subjects in drawing that should be studied by the prospective architectural draftsman, putting them in such form that they may be at hand for ready reference as he works over his designs on the board. It is thus both a text- and a reference book. The beginner will find the course of study outlined on pages 143, 144 and 145 a useful guide in its use as a textbook. As indicated in the preface, the covering of the entire range of architectural drawing in one volume is not practically possible. The necessarily brief treatment of some of the subjects suggests the desirability of supplementing them by concurrent study. The draftsman already familiar with the elementary subjects will, it is believed, find the material as presented of much value in his practical work.