This section is from the book "The Principles And Practice Of Modern House-Construction", by G. Lister Sutcliffe. Also available from Amazon: How Your House Works: A Visual Guide to Understanding & Maintaining Your Home.
Burn Brothers' patent expanding drain-stopper deserves mention for its simplicity and other advantages. It consists of an india-rubber tube or cylinder with air-pump, and canvas bags of various sizes for slipping over the tube, according to the size of the drain to be tested; thus, one tube can be used to stop drains of different sizes by simply changing the canvas bag.
Fig. 744. - The "Jensen Pneumatic Drain testing Machine.
Warming". - It is not generally considered advisable to utilize the kitchen boiler for heating a low-pressure wanning apparatus as well as the hot water service, but as this has been satisfactorily done, and as in many cases the arrangement is both economical and convenient, one method of fitting the apparatus will be illustrated and described. The first necessity is a suitable boiler. The ordinary bath-boiler exposes too little heating surface to the action of the fire to give satisfactory results; Potterton's Zigzag boilers, of which one form is shown in Fig. 745, contain about six times as much heating surface, and should therefore be used. These boilers are of 3/8 in. welded wrought-iron, and are fitted with hand-holes so that deposits can be easily removed. The heat can be regulated by means of a damper, and a top-feeder is made to fit over the grate, so that the fire will burn all night.
Fig. 745.- Kitchen-range fitted with Pottertons "Zigzag" Boiler and Top feeder of the fire to give satisfactory results; Potterton's "Zigzag" boilers, of which one form is shown in Fig. 745, contain about six times as much heating surface, and should therefore be used. These boilers are of 3/8 in. welded wrought-iron, and are fitted with hand-holes so that deposits can be easily removed. The heat can be regulated by means of a damper, and a top-feeder is made to fit over the grate, so that the fire will burn all night.
The apparatus is on the tank system, and separate pipes arc taken from the hot tank for the hot-water service and warming apparatus respectively. By this arrangement the hot water for domestic purposes is supplied at a high temperature. The warming apparatus is on the one-pipe system, the flow and return of the radiators being connected to a single pipe, but the double-pipe system can be adopted if desired. Figs. 746 and 747 are plans of two floors of a house, showing the warming pipes and radiators, and Fig. 748 is a diagraming view. The radiators are numbered with Roman numerals; a is the safety valve, B is the connection for the return warming pipe in the l 1/2-in. return-pipe from the tank to the boiler, c is the 1 1/4 in. expansion-pipe for the domestic hot-water service, d is the 1-in. branch to the bath-room and scullery, etc, E is a full-way valve which, when closed, stops the direct return to the boiler and diverts the water through the warming pipes, f is the l 1/4 in. expansion-pipe for the warming system, and from the point g in this pipe an inch pipe is taken around the cold-water cistern (to keep it from being frozen in winter) and thence carried to its junction with the main pipe at H, k is a 3/4-in. draw-off cock for emptying the system; the warming pipe is l1/2-in. in bore, and is laid with a gradual rise to the point H and a gradual fall then to the point J, whence it rises to the boiler. The dotted line l is the 1-in. lead supply-pipe from the cistern to the return-main, and a full-way valve is fixed in it at the point m. Each radiator has a gun-metal angle valve and an automatic air-cock, and is connected to the main with 1-in. pipes and gun-metal unions or union-elbows.
Mention should also be made of a Court & Binny's system of warming buildings by hot water, although it can be economically adopted only in large buildings, such as flats and mansions. The water is heated by , 1, verly-designed steam heaters, and is driven through the system of pipes by means of a pump.
the motive power for which may be steam or electricity. The forced circulation has many advantages, among which may be mentioned greater rapidity of circulation resulting in an almost uniform temperature throughout the system. smaller pipes and fittings, and thorough circulation through all dips in the pipes; indeed, one or more floors below the heater may be wanned by means of this apparatus.
Fig. 746. - Ground-floor Plan of House warmed from Kitchen-boiler.
Fig. 747. - First-floor Plan of House warmed from Kitchen-boiler.
Fig 748. - Diagrammatic View of Wanning Apparatus and Domestic Hot-water Service wanned from Kitchen Boiler.
Warming and Cooking by Electricity. - In a paper entitled "Practical Applications of Electrical Power", read beforc the Royal Institute of British Architects on December 24, 1898, Mr. H. R. J. Burstall, M.InstC.E., gave some figures as to the cost of cooking by electricity which differ somewhat from those given on pp. 161-2, vol. ii., although the price of electricity per unit is assumed to be the same, namely Ad. They are as follows: -
Coat per Hoar.
Coat fur one operation from all cold
1 1/2 pint
Cost to heat up, 013d.
Ventilation. - Water-closet rooms are usually ventilated by means of one or more air-grates fixed in the walls, but these often act as air- inlets, and the air entering through them is mixed with the polluted air of the closet and drawn thence into the house. This can be prevented by the clever contrivance known as Kerrill & Hunter's patent fan. This is a small extracting fan, set in motion by the water entering the W.C. cistern. The fan works smoothly and almost noiselessly, and the inventors claim that, with a 60-lb. pressure of water, it will extract 200 cubic feet of air per minute. In other words, it will change the air of an ordinary water-closet room in less than a minute.
Lighting by Gas. -Attention should be drawn to the new Welsbach incandescent gas-burner, which has the advantage of not requiring a chimney; it is made in different sizes, and is not so liable to choke as the older patterns.
As leaky gas-pipes are often a source of great inconvenience and danger, and as the position of the leaks is often difficult to find by ordinary methods, especially when the pipes are covered with plaster, a handy apparatus for testing gas-installations merits de-scription. The "Jensen" apparatus is shown in Fig. 749. It consists of a container a, into which liquid ammonia is poured, and the fumes from this are then pumped through the system of pipes by means of the small force pump b. The pressure-gauge indicates the severity of the test. Before using the apparatus, all the gas-taps must be turned off, including that at the meter, and the flexible tube c must be attached to one of the fittings, and the tap of this fitting opened. If a simple testing of the installation is required, air only is pumped into the system of pipes until a certain pressure (say 2 or 3 lbs. per sq. in.) is recorded on the gauge; if the indicator remains constant, the pipes are proved to be air-tight, but if the pressure falls, the installation is shown to be defective, and the leak or leaks must be sought. This is done by pouring into the container a little ammonia - from half an ounce to an ounce will suffice for an installation of moderate size - and then pumping the fumes into the pipes. The position of the leaks will be fixed by passing a test-paper along the course of the pipes. As ammonia is strongly alkaline, red litmus paper will be turned blue at the place where an escape occurs, and yellow turmeric brown. When acetylene is used for illumination, the system of pipes should always be carefully tested. A cheap modification of the apparatus just described is also made, and is practically the same, but without the pressure-gauge.
Fig 749. - The " Jensen'- Gas -installation Testing Machine. No. 1, with prressure gauge: No. 2. without pressure-gauge.
Stables. - In a foot-note on page 456, vol. ii., I pointed out some objections to the form of stable-trap illustrated on that page, and it will be well, therefore, to suggest what may be used in its place. Some good stable-traps are like yard-gullies in shape, with round-pipe outlets, and with perforated trays for intercepting straw and manure. Colonel Moore's stable trap is more novel, and effectually retains the solid matter; it is shown in Fig. 750.
Fig. 750 - Colonel Moore's Stable-trap.