This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
Direction Of The Eye. The direction of the eye is a very important factor, as the angle of the eye gives the motive for the expression. You should, therefore. move about in the direction in which the eyes are to be turned, and without request on your part the eyes of the subject will follow. Should you wish the head held a little higher or a trifle lower, by raising or lowering your chin a trifle while talking to the subject, he will unconsciously be directed to do the same without request. If he does not, a suggestion that he raise the head slightly - you at the same time raising your chin a trifle - will cause him to follow you precisely. All of this, of course, requires some practice, but to be successful you must be able to control the expression of subjects without verbally requesting changes. Practice along these lines, making numerous exposures of the subject, in an effort to improve expression. It will greatly aid your advancement.
Head Rests. For juvenile subjects it is not advisable to employ a head-rest, especially where full length or two-thirds figures are made. For bust portraits, if there is danger of movement, the head-rest may be employed successfully, but better pictures can be made without it.
Developing. We advise the use of the Universal Formula given in Volume II, for developing all regular exposures. As exposures of children are inclined to be on the short side, the addition of one-third more water to the regular formula will enable you to obtain more detail should there be under-exposure. If you discover the plate to be considerably under-exposed, treat it according to instruction given in Volume II for developing under-exposures. Should you by chance over-develop, causing the plate to become too strong in high-lights, with fair detail in the shadows, reduce the plate after development with Persulphate of Ammonia Reducer. See instruction on Local Reducing, Volume 11
503. After developing, the negatives being dry, make good proof prints, studying them carefully. Observe the improvement from the first to the last exposure. Note on the back of each proof all data pertaining to their production, and file them in the proof file for future reference. It is advisable to make proofs from all your experimental negatives, filing them and occasionally going over these proofs. They will prove most valuable and instructive, as you will observe your improvement from time to time, and will learn to understand more readily the advantages of certain manipulations.