This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
Shortening The Length Of The Nose. You will also observe in Fig. 2, that the nose appears quite long, and we have shortened this feature by etching away a portion of the high-light at the tip of the nose. This is an important alteration, and unless carefully done will often spoil the likeness.
469. In Fig. 1 you will observe that the length of the nose has been exaggerated by the manner in which the high-light has been extended on the bridge of the nose; and also by the camera being placed above the subject, looking down upon the bridge, thereby lengthening it, while had the camera been placed on a lower plane the nose would have appeared shorter.
470. Shortening the bridge of the nose has not changed the likeness of the individual at all; in fact, as shown in Fig. 3 the nose is far more natural in appearance than in Fig. 1. By comparing Fig. 1 with Fig. 3, as a whole, you will note the likeness has been preserved throughout. The changes made have wonderfully improved the appearance of the subject, and out of a practically speaking worthless portrait has been produced a very pleasing picture.
471. A careful comparison should be made of these three figures, as many important points have been covered, and by careful study of these and preceding ones illustrated in this volume there should be no great difficulty experienced in making any necessary alterations. Before making alterations on any negative, however, you should decide upon the exact effect you desire to produce, or the changes you wish to make. Never start to retouch or etch a negative before you have formulated your ideas as to what is to be done. Do not work in a haphazard way, but always follow a certain system. The methods given herein, if followed to the letter, cannot fail to lead you to success.