166. This section is devoted to Kodak and Film Photography, including the manipulation of kodak or other film cameras and the handling and developing of the different classes of films, i. e., Eastman N.-C, Ansco, Lumiere, Ensign, etc., Kodoid Plates and the Film Pack.

167. The chemical manipulation of all transparent films is the same; but as they are put up in different ways, the preparation and method of handling in development differs to a certain extent. Instruction for loading the kodak or camera always accompanies the instrument; therefore, we will not dwell at length upon the preliminary operations. At the present time the old "Regular" Roll Film is a thing of the past, and the general instruction given here will apply directly to the various "non-curling" films which are in general use.

168. With the exception of loading, the general principles of the film kodak or camera are identical with the glass plate instruments, and, therefore, the previous chapters are applicable, and should be read by the student who enters his photographic career with a kodak or other film camera. Also read the booklet which comes with the kodak or film camera. Make yourself perfectly familiar with the instrument, taking special care to learn how the shutter works, and if it is a folding kodak apply the rack and pinion for focusing. Note the use of the focusing scale, the rising front, etc. Before threading up the film, work the shutter for both time and instantaneous exposures. The first thing for the beginner to bear in mind is that the light which serves to impress the photographic image upon the sensitive film in a fraction of a second, as it comes through the lens, can also spoil the film as quickly as it takes the picture. The film must not be exposed to white light of any kind - gas, oil, candle, electric, etc., - until it has been developed and washed, or it will be ruined. Therefore, care must be exercised throughout all operations of loading and unloading, to keep the black paper wound tightly around the film to prevent admission of light.

169. Non-Curling Film

Non-Curling Film. In the non-curling film the tendency to curl is overcome by a process explained below - hence the name non-curling. This film is usually also ortho-chromatic, reproducing practically perfect color-values. It is free from electrical markings, possesses great latitude in exposure, and is not subject to halation, due to the thinness of the support and the close proximity of the protective black backing. A marked advantage of the non-curling film is its great speed, which means much to the worker on dull, smoky days.

170. The curling of the film is overcome by coating both sides of the celluloid with gelatin; therefore greater care must be exercised in the handling, and neither side must come in contact with anything while drying. (See Paragraph 209 regarding drying.)

171. As these films are very rapid and orthochromatic they should be handled carefully in the dark-room by theruby light. The light should not be too strong - film being susceptible to color rays. If the ruby light is too strong, even though of the correct color, it will fog the film. We advise developing as far away from the ruby light as possible. A safe precaution would be to place an extra piece of yellow post office paper over the ruby light. This paper can be obtained from any photographic supply dealer.

AT THE SEA SHORE Study No. 3   See Page 369 By L S NEARY

AT THE SEA SHORE Study No. 3 - See Page 369 By L S NEARY .

172. Non-curling films, being gelatin coated on both sides, must be fixed in an acid fixing bath, or else be immersed in an alum bath after fixing. (See Paragraph 205.)