This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
Moonlight Effects. With a very bright moon exposures at night need not be lengthy. An open view, like a large city square, may be taken in four or five minutes, using stop F. 8 and a rapid plate. An open view in the country, free from artificial lighting, would take from half to three-quarters of an hour. There is no use attempting work in the country at night, except by moonlight. A farm building, a country road with clumps of trees, and perhaps a little cottage set back from the road, or objects of this kind, help to build up very pretty moonlight views.
512. Care must be exercised not to include the moon in the view, as the result will be a long, elliptically-shaped mark across the sky as a result of movement. Almost all night photographs including a moon are faked. (See Illustration 47, "A Moonlight Effect.") The method of their production is to snap-shot against the sun when the sun is partly hidden by clouds, or the sun is very red, and develop the negative up thin. Certainly these faked night pictures are very pretty, but they depend largely upon cloud effects. A red sunset gives better moonlight effects on account of its decreased actinic power. The artificial sources of illumination which are sometimes put in with the brush give a false and very feeble idea of light and shadow.
Photographing The Moon. There is a way, however, to include a real moon in the photograph, by simply making an exposure of the moon, capping the lens and then waiting until the moon has moved higher and out of the view, when the exposure can be continued. This is perhaps the very best method of securing a moon in the view, and it can be strengthened considerably by careful local intensification and pencil work. Avoid over-exposure in moonlight photography. There is a considerable amount of latitude in night work in the country. You should never give more than 30 minutes on a well lighted scene with full moon, a rapid plate and the lens stopped to F. 11. If you give double this exposure the result is apt to be a " daylight" effect, no matter how carefully the plate is developed.
Panoramic Views. Panoramic Views may be taken on a single plate, making the photograph from a great distance and then enlarging the horizon of the negative and trimming the rest away; or, two or more plates may be exposed, turning the camera on its center and joining the prints together. But in this case it is preferable to be very much nearer the subject to be photographed, otherwise the scene will be so small that the whole picture will present a mass of minute detail, only discernable with a powerful magnifier.
Snow Scenes. Either city or open country abound in choice subjects for night photography after a fall of snow, when everything is covered with a white mantle. If the night is clear and the objects stand out sharply owing to the reflected light from the snow, the illumination is increased and the exposure, therefore, is cut down approximately one-half. Under such circumstances it would be possible to make a fully lighted street scene, using a rapid plate and F. 11 stop, in 5 to 10 minutes.