This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
Moonlight Effects. Moonlight effects are best rendered from negatives made in broad daylight. You will need your ordinary camera and lens, a very rapid shutter, and a few non-halation plates. A ray filter is often very useful. Remember, in using these filters or screens, considerably more time must be given, as the yellow color in the screen slows the light.
652. Desirable cloud and shadow effects can be obtained without the filter by careful exposure and development. We advise non-halation plates, as with the camera facing the sun, fogging from over-exposure is less likely to occur.
653. Choose a water scene by seashore, lake, or stream, as the sun's reflection, glint and delicate catchlights on the water add much to the picture.
654. Again, early morning or evening is best, as the sun is low and directly facing you at this time. An approaching thunder-storm offers a splendid opportunity, as does a sky covered with bright fleecy clouds. For an example of moonlight effects see Illustration No. 47, page 228.
655. Having adjusted the view on the ground-glass, focus on the clouds and do not stop down too much, as a foreground too sharp tends to spoil the night effect. Wait until the sun begins to disappear behind a cloud or mountain, then expose very rapidly, say 1-100 of a second. With a slow shutter working at perhaps 1-25 of a second you may stop down a little more so not to over-time, as too much time will ruin the detail in sky, and a negative slightly under-timed will give best results.
656. When developing, if you have followed instructions, you will know the plate is under-timed and can develop it accordingly. Do not weaken the developer too much by the addition of water, for while your developer must be weak do not over-do it, else you will produce a flat plate, which would be of no use for this purpose. Rather, if necessary, use a drop or two of bromide to hold the detail in the sky and prevent fogging.
657. This can best be done by using a tuft of cotton, saturated in a weak solution of bromide. This should be applied only to the dark clouds in the sky, or the foreground of the plate, and such other portions as may develop too flat or dense or with too much detail.
658. The use of bromide on an under-timed exposure would be contrary to the usual rule in developing, but in this case little or no detail is wanted in the shadows, else the results would be the same as an ordinary under-timed daylight exposure. Hence the use of bromide to add to the night effect, by securing detail in the sky and clouds and obliterating it in the foreground, which is in deep shadow except for the light glints on the water.
Additional Methods For Securing Fuzzy Pictures. If it is desired to secure an even diffusion throughout the entire picture space, from negatives which are perfectly sharp, a sheet of clear celluloid or cellulose and transparent tissue paper, should be interposed between the negative and printing paper. The tissue paper should be in contact or next to the film of the negative, between it ana the printing paper. The use of the tissue paper necessarily increases the amount of exposure that will have to be given the sensitive paper, and this must be reckoned with especially when printing on developing papers.
SPRING Study No. 44 - See Page 308 By Wm, H. Phillips.
660. When the enlarging process is resorted to, the image should be thrown onto the screen, and after securing perfectly sharp focus move the lens a trifle nearer the negative, and thus obtain diffusion. Enlarging through bolting cloth will also give practically any degree of diffusion, all depending upon the distance the bolting cloth is placed from the bromide paper.
661. If it is desired to secure this diffusion in the original negative, the most artistic and true-to-nature effects will be obtained by sharply focusing upon the immediate foreground and making the exposure with the lens wide open. Prints from such negatives should be made on rough paper.