The danger in using old or impure sulphite is not so much in the fact that sulphate is present, as that the action of sulphite is absent. There must be enough sulphite to control the color of the negative or to prevent the staining of prints, and this cannot be determined accurately unless your sulphite of soda is pure. Sulphate of soda also has a retarding action on the developer. This may sometimes be noticed in using old solutions, as sulphite changes to sulphate more rapidly when in solution than in its dry form.

Since developing-out papers have come into general use, sulphite of soda, in combination with acetic acid, has come to be one of the most important chemicals in the fixing bath.

The addition of acid alone would immediately cause the hypo to decompose and sulphur-ization of prints would be the result. But the combination of sulphite of soda and acetic acid forms a sulphurous acid gas which prevents such action and with the alum gives an ideal bath for fixing and hardening.

The sulphite for the fixing bath should always be as fresh and pure as that used in a developer - in fact it is more important. If impure sulphite is used and the hypo begins to decompose, the unstable chemicals so that earliest slight break in home ties - the morning when the boy or the girl first trudges off to school! From that day, the changes are rapid. Every year you note them. And almost before you realize it, there comes the severer sundering of those ties, when John or Mary with a cheery "Will be home for Christmas, sure," waves a stout farewell.Both of you are choking back sentiment. And afterward - how pictures, showing all the rapid transitions, do help.

There's a photographer in your town. Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y.formed may destroy an entire batch of prints before the trouble is discovered.

A properly made acid fixing bath will remain clear beyond the time when it is really safe to use. It is a much greater economy to make a fresh fixing bath than to take a chance on an old one. The acid fixing bath immediately stops development and prevents stains, but if used beyond the point where it will properly fix, it will give a print containing an insoluble silver salt which readily decomposes.No amount of washing will remove this insoluble salt, while if fixing is complete, the soluble silver salts so formed are readily washed out of the film.

A gallon (128 ozs.) of fresh fixing bath will fix approximately four gross of cabinet prints or the equivalent in larger sizes. When this number of prints has been fixed, throw this bath away and make a fresh one.

Artura Carbon

------Black-----Enlargements retain the contact quality


In a recent article we gave an idea how to figure expense and profit in the average studio. The subject is a complex one and can only be covered in such a general way as to point out those expenses which, on their face, seem to be profits but are really not.

Your actual cost of doing business is arrived at by estimating your entire running and overhead expense for a given period and dividing this by the total of your sales for the same period. The result is the percentage of cost of doing business during that time.

A great many business men figure this percentage on a year's business, but their business is usually a matter of buying and selling. If their cost of doing business is 20% they must sell at a price that will cover this cost and leave a fair profit. But the photographer is not a merchant in the real sense of the word. He is a manufacturer, and more than this, his goods are all made to order and are not salable to other than the particular person who places the order. Then again, his ability as a workman must be considered in fixing his selling price and determining his profit. Everything taken into account, the photographer should have a greater profit on his work than the merchant, for he sells as well as produces, and his risks are greater.

Human Nature StudioLightMagazine1915 163


By The Hoover Art Co. Los Angeles, Calif.

To determine the actual cost of producing a dozen photographs is a difficult problem and the cost will vary with the class of work. The average cost is easy to determine. If the cost of doing business has been estimated at 30%, the cost of a dozen pictures is 30% of the selling price plus the cost of the material.

This is very well for the average of a year's business but it doesn't get at the weak points. You know that you make more profit on some orders than others, but how are you to determine which is profitable and which is not?

For example - you have a ten dollar picture on which your figures show you make 50% profit, while the same seems true of a two dollar picture, but is it? More than likely you are making 60% on the ten dollar picture and 5% on the two dollar picture. And if your business should all run to the two dollar work you would begin to actually lose money. The high priced work brings up the average and makes the cheap work seem profitable when it may not be.

Suppose you divide the total of your overhead and running expense for a given period by the number of dozen pictures you have produced during that period. This will give you a better idea of the average cost of production - and a much fairer one. It takes about as much time to make negatives, develop, proof, retouch and mount for an order of cabinets as it does for an order of six by eight prints.Say, for example, this fixed expense figures $1.50 per dozen pictures produced. Add to this the cost of material for a dozen cabinet pictures, say, $.75, and you have a cost of $2.25.

On the other hand, add $1.50 to the cost of material for the six by eight pictures, say, $2.75, and you have a cost of $4.25. Consequently your cabinet size pictures must be sold at approximately $5.25 to make a profit equal to that of the six by eight prints at $10.00 per dozen.

Increase the volume of business without increasing your overhead and running expenses, and you will reduce this fixed expense for producing a dozen pictures, but not materially enough to sell those cabinets at $2.00 per dozen.

Of course, it's a good plan to keep your plant running at full capacity, even if you only pay expenses in an extremely dull season, but it is an easy matter to lose money if you sell pictures without first knowing what it actually costs you to produce them.Then, on the other hand, with a great volume of cheap work, the higher priced, more profitable work is apt to be neglected or crowded out when it is really the salvation of your bank account.

Human Nature StudioLightMagazine1915 165


By The Hoover Art Co. Los Angeles, Calif.