The best lighting is high side lighting, that proceeding from an angle, say 75 from the front plane, in order that the object may show a certain amount of relief, due to the slight shadows cast by the lighting. If the lighting is too much from the front, all sense of relief is lost. In the same way, it is better to place the camera slightly to one side of the object so that some perspective is shown, otherwise the ob-ject may appear to have no depth at all, and the photograph will give a very poor idea of its real size and shape. As we have said, the best kind of lighting is from the side. But this may mean that the side farthest away will be too dark. It is therefore as well to have a large white reflector to reflect back some light on to the dark side.

Undesired reflections are the chief difficulty to be encountered in photographing furniture, and the way to overcome these is to arrange the direction of the lighting by means of blinds, so that no light is reflected back into the lens.When a ray of light strikes a level surface the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection are equal.

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Thus, in the figure, if we consider the line FA to represent a ray of light which strikes the plane UAB at A, it will be reflected along the line ACE (the angle FAU = the angle EAB), then anyone on the line EA looking towards A will see a reflection of F. If any light reaches the object which, when thrown off at the same angle as it strikes it, is visible to the lens, that light will be photographed and there will be the "glaze" so often seen in poor photographs. Thus it is necessary for the light to come sufficiently from the side or top to avoid its being reflected into the lens. If, however, the light is much to the side, reflections will be avoided, but the object will be more brightly lighted at one side than the other. The object must accordingly be arranged at such an angle that the light will fall upon it fairly fully but without causing reflections.

When a piece of furniture containing a mirror is photographed, it is very undesirable that the reflections of the walls or furniture of the studio should be seen in the mirror. To prevent this, it is only necessary to hang up a white sheet, avoiding any creases, so that only the reflection of this in the mirror is photographed.

Table Tops

Reflections from shiny table-tops are very troublesome. These can be avoided if a red or orange cloth is used as a background, slightly tilted towards the object, so that the reflection of this from the table-top is photographed. A black background will make the object look black, and a white background will give a white reflection, both of these being unpleasant. A matte red background fastened without creases, or hung so that it can be moved about during exposure,willallowof sufficient reflected light to be photographed as not to be objectionable, and, in fact, will allow the detail to be shown.

Reflections are very often caused by bright surrounding objects. These reflections can be avoided by hanging over the objects a dead black cloth, and it is well for the operator to provide himself with a number of strips of black cloth, that can be pinned up over any object which causes reflections. Reflections from the floor must be looked for and covered.

A refinement is to use, as the picture copiers use, a big black screen in front of the object, with a laced slit through which the lens can project. If this screen is made with hinged flaps, everything that is necessary can be done with it to prevent reflections both from the back and from the side.

{To be continued.}

If you are unfamiliar with any line of photographic work, visit the Eastman School of Professional Photography. Also encourage your employees to attend, for their increased efficiency means better service to you.

SlXTEEN is a most interesting age - but each year marks a change that should be recorded by a new portrait.Make the appointment to-day.

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