The commercial photographer often has occasion to deliver prints with gummed backs. The gum must be dry, but it must have adhesive qualities that will permit of its being mounted on any suitable support simply by moistening it as one does a postage stamp.

The following formulae have been found very satisfactory and should be added to the information in your scrap book of formulae if you have such a means of keeping information where it may always be found when you need it:

Water...... 5 parts

Fish Glue or Liquid

Glue..... 10 parts

Glucose (liquid) . . 5 parts

Alcohol (denatured) . 5 parts

Heat the water and stir in the glue, glucose and alcohol. Add a few drops of carbolic acid to prevent fermentation and thin down with water to the required consistency.

The following modified Dextrin formula may also be used with good results:

Dextrin..... 10 parts

Water..... 10 parts

Acetic Acid (glacial) 5 parts

Glucose (liquid) . . 5 parts

Alcohol ( denatured ) 5 parts

Warm the dextrin and water, add the acetic acid and heat. Stir in the glucose and finally add the alcohol and a few drops of carbolic acid. Thin with water as required. The function of the glucose is to prevent the adhesive coating from cracking. If the coating is too tacky when dry, use less glucose.

The solution is applied with a brush and the prints hung up in a dry atmosphere. They dry very quickly, unless too much glucose has been used, and should remain dry so long as they are not subject to dampness.

Wheel trimmers can be sharpened by making a groove in a piece of soft wood, filling this with fine emery powder, and then running the wheel trimmer backwards and forwards in the emery-lined groove. The groove is made by laying a thin straightedge on the wood and running the wheel along until the cut is wide enough to take the emery powder.

It is usual, in taking a sitter with protruding ears, to avoid the full-face portrait. Every experienced operator knows, however, that with some sitters the full-face is the only possible view, whatever the ears may be like. With sitters of this kind the white background is a drawback. The silhouetted effect emphasizes the outline and draws attention to the slight irregularity. It is much better to use a toned background and, in arranging the light, to keep the ear in a low key.

From An Eastman Bromide Print By Geo. F. Wettlin Newark, N. J.

From An Eastman Bromide Print By Geo. F. Wettlin Newark, N. J.

Many professionals don't seem to realize that, when they arrange specimens of their work in their windows or showcases, they are telling the public not only what kind of photographs they take, but how they conduct their businesses, whether they have artistic tastes, and whether they are likely to give careful attention to every detail of an order. As a rule, the public get their first impressions of a professional from what he puts before them - and first impressions have a habit of sticking in the mind and creating permanent prejudices.

When an operator starts taking very large heads direct, he is liable to fall into the error of using a lens of too short a focus. He finds that as fast as he gets one feature in focus another goes out of focus, and no compromise is possible except to produce a fuzzy negative which is sharp nowhere. He learns after a few failures, however, that a long-focus lens is absolutely necessary for this class of work if he wants definition and absence of distortion. Another frequent error in making large heads is under-exposure. This causes the harshness which is so fatal to good results. It makes slight blemishes or freckles too assertive, and prevents the shadows from being luminous. To secure softness and gradation in the flesh, the exposure must be full, and development must not be prolonged or forced. It is a wise precaution to keep the developer weak in pyro.

The rapid drying of negatives has always been a perplexing problem for those who have to rush their work off at a few hours notice. Press photographers, as a rule, avoid the difficulty by making their urgent prints from wet negatives. This method, of course, is out of the question where a considerable number of prints are wanted. Hot air has often been advocated as the quickest means of drying a negative, but the great drawback to applying heat to a wet emulsion is so well known that the professional is seldom anxious to give the method a trial. It is quite true that a still hot atmosphere will very soon melt the film, but it is just as true that an even hotter atmosphere when forced against it by means of an electric blower dries the negative very quickly without any deteriorating effects.

There are operators who never and others who always use a re-reflector. The man who knows what he wants gets it by any means possible. He uses a reflector when it serves his purpose and discards it when he can secure the effects he wishes without it.

From An Eastman Bromide Print By Geo. F. Wettlin ' Newark, N. J.

From An Eastman Bromide Print By Geo. F. Wettlin ' Newark, N. J.