A marked feature of the business done by professional photographers this year has been the great increase in the number of enlargements sold in good class studios. For some years enlargements have been neglected by a good many photographers, largely because they have felt that the public associated enlargements with the cheap crayon productions at one time sold by agents.

That this feeling on the part of the public did exist cannot be gainsaid. Whether photographers did what was best for themselves in treating it as they have is another matter. Here and there, scattered about the country, are photographers who have kept on selling enlargements. These men have found that if they offer enlargements as good as their smaller work they can sell a number in the course of the year. They have proved that the public which is willing to pay the price of a good photograph, is, very frequently, willing to pay the price of a good enlargement as well.

But it must be a good enlargement. The photographers who have made, and are making, a success of enlargements as a "side line," are those who have realized that their customers can tell as readily as themselves the difference between the good and the bad. These people may not understand why one is better than the other, they may not know anything about the methods of production - but they do know just as well as the photographer whether the total effect is pleasing or not.

Enlargements up to 10 x 12 or 12x15, especially when "solid" from dark-background negatives, may well be made in the photographer's own workrooms. But successful enlarging calls for a high standard of negative production. Pinholes, scratches and other development markings, as well as faulty retouching, all show up badly in an enlargement and require a great deal of work in finishing.

The enlargement which sells best nowadays is not the vignetted head and shoulders with a cloud background which was sold ten or twelve years ago. Generally speaking, it may be said that the enlargement of today is an exact duplicate of the contact print in every respect but size.

Artura Carbon Black is the ideal enlarging medium because the Artura Carbon Black enlargement retains the contact quality.

Correct Exposures For Enlargements

When you are printing the regular order of contact prints from the negative, note the time necessary for making an Artura Iris print with the negative at a given distance from the light. This last is most important as each succeeding test must be made with the negative at the same distance from the light. For example, we will say this Iris time is six seconds. Now make an Artura Carbon Black or Bromide enlargement 8 x 10, being sure to make tests to get the exposure absolutely correct. We will say you are using Bromide and the correct exposure is fifteen seconds. Divide the fifteen by the six and you have 2½, which is the factor to use in determining the correct exposure for an 8 x 10 enlargement from any negative.

Suppose, for example, the correct exposure for the Iris print is ten seconds; the exposure for the 8 x 10 Bromide will be 2½ times ten or twenty-five seconds.

You may now take any negative of the same size as the one used in the first test and when you know the correct exposure for an Iris print and multiply it by 2½ you will have the correct time for an 8 x 10 Bromide enlargement. It is easy to see what an advantage this method is to the photographer who is making a specialty of a certain sized enlargement, but it may also be used to determine the exposure for any other sized enlargement. It is not necessary to find the factor for each size, as the result may be obtained without making the different size test enlargements.

If a larger print is desired you have the exposure for the ten inch print; square the ten and you have 100. You want to make a 14 x 17 print; square the seventeen and you have 289; divide the 289 by 100 which gives 2.89, showing that the seventeen inch print has an area 2.89 times greater than the ten inch print. Hence if the proper time for the 8 x 10 enlargement is 25 seconds, the time for the 14 x 17 enlargement will be 2.89 times as long which is 72¼ seconds. The light decreases in intensity in proportion to the larger area which it covers, so the time for any size enlargements may be determined by having the correct exposure for a given size. In using this factor to determine the exposure it is understood that the lens of enlarging camera is stopped down to a given point and used at the same stop for all exposures. The process of making enlargements of a given size may be made still more simple by having a set point for the enlarging easel and camera front where the full size of negative is to be enlarged, making the apparatus fixed focus. Of course where only a part of a negative is to be used, the regular method of focusing would have to be resorted to.