Last month we suggested a method of giving apprentices a course of intensive training rather than allowing them to struggle along with little or no effort being made to increase their efficiency.

If you have an apprentice who is apt, give him every possible encouragement. Boost him along and he will make a good workman. These are times for casting precedent aside. Your dark-room man may have taken years to grow into his job, but you can't wait for a boy or girl to gain experience in this way. You must teach them in days what you have learned in years.

Photography is an open book. It can be made simple and understandable so far as the processes of developing, printing, enlarging and negative making are concerned. We will not say as much for posing and lighting in portraiture because these things can not be taught by rule.

Our previous suggestions on developing should be followed by a series of practical lessons on after treatment of negatives.

It has been said that fully fifty per cent. of all negatives, taken as they come, could be improved by after chemical treatment. You can prove or disprove this for yourself.

Go through a hundred negatives and pick out a perfect one,that lad of yours, over seas.

All that is humanly possible is being done to see to it that he is well fed, well clothed and efficiently equipped. Organizations like the Y. M. C. A., are looking to his physical comfort, healthful recreation and clean fun. If he is sick or wounded the Red Cross will provide for him with tender, loving care.

Yet there is one thing that will bring a smile to his face and a joy to his heart that none of these can give; that only you can give - your photograph.

There's a photographer in your town. Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N. that is too dense, one too thin, one too contrasty and one too flat.

The negatives that are too thin and the ones too dense may be entirely the results of over or under-exposure, development having been correct. The ones that are too contrasty may be the results of under-exposure and overdevelopment or too contrasty lightings. The ones that are too flat may be the results of overexposure and under-development or too flat lightings.

Pick such examples from your discarded negatives and by comparison with a perfect negative point out to your pupil these faults and their causes. The improvement of negatives by after-treatment is very simple, and by following a few fundamental principles, failure is almost impossible.

It is not necessary to go into the chemistry of after-treatment processes, as the idea is only to teach an apprentice the principles involved and the result of the proper treatment. Carefulness is the one important precaution.

Before a negative is reduced or intensified it must be thoroughly fixed and washed. It must be explained that when a negative is developed there is as much colorless bromide of silver in the gelatine as there is metallic silver that has formed the image. Fixing makes this silver bromide soluble in water and washing removes it, if fixing has been sufficiently thorough to render it completely soluble. If any of this silver bromide remains in the gelatine film, stains will result. Hence - fix and wash thoroughly.

Of the negatives that need reduction the first are those which are merely too dense. Such a result is due to over-exposure, and as over-exposure adds density to all parts of a negative alike, the reducer which will correct over-exposure is one which will remove an equal amount of silver from all parts of the negative alike.

The well known Farmers Reducer should be used for this purpose. It is not a proportional reducer, and you should explain to the apprentice why it is not. John has two apples - Mary has ten. Take one from John and you have 50% of his apples - take one from Mary and you have 10% of her apples. You have taken equally but not proportionately from each.

Farmers Reducer





Red Prussiate of Potash . .




Water .........



Hypo .........



Add A to B. Watch results closely. Use a white tray to see results best and work by artificial light, as working in daylight may cause stains.

For local reduction it is advisable to use two reducing solutions - one strong and another very weak one. The strong solution is applied locally with a tuft of cotton and the entire negative is occasionally immersed in the weak solution. This action produces an even printing color and does away with spottiness which might result from too great an amount of reduction in one place.

Make The Apprentice Efficient StudioLightMagazine1918 101


By T. L. Halldorson

Middle Atlantic States Convention

The action of the Persulphate Reducer is to attack the highlights without affecting the shadows. This is desirable if a negative is too contrasty but right in other ways. Too much contrast may be due to a very contrasty lighting or an under-exposure that is over-developed or an improper balance of the developing formula that produces harsh contrasty negatives from properly lighted subjects.

To reduce contrast the highlights must be reduced but the shadows remain as they are. The following reducer has this peculiar property and will produce excellent results:


Water........ 9 ozs.

Persulphate of Ammonia ............. 1 oz.

Sulphate of Soda.......... 80 grs.

Sulphuric Acid C. P..........80 min.

It is important that this solution be made at least twenty-four hours before use. Take one part of above to nine parts of water. When proper reduction has been secured immerse the negative in a 20% Hypo bath for five minutes and wash in running water for twenty minutes.