A great deal of thought is being given, both here and abroad, to the proper training of apprentices and to the finding of light work for those who have been discharged from the service, unable because of some injury to resume their previous occupations.

There are many branches of photographic work that require skill and practice rather than originality, and such work can be taught the apprentice whether he has a natural talent for photographic work or not.

In previous articles we have given suggestions for the training of apprentices in developing, printing and after-processes, and we think it is quite essential that copying should be made a part of the training of an apprentice. Copying should certainly come before the making of sittings, if the apprentice aspires to be an operator, for a thorough knowledge of copying will lead to a better understanding of other branches of photographic work.

To many photographers who are operators, copying is distasteful. There is satisfaction in creating a thing but not in reproducing the creation of another. For this reason there are more poor copies made than there should be.

There should be the same incentive to produce a good copy as a good original, and if you are a photographer who dislikes copying, we would suggest that you teach another to do this work well and then get as much of it to do as you can.

The advantage in copying is that you are sure to please your patron if your copy is as good as the original, and you can often make it better. The important things are to light the copy right, to use the right material, to expose right and develop right. This seems very simple and is, but there are chances for failure.

It is best to light the copy from both sides to eliminate grain if the print to be copied is on rough paper. The photo-engraver uses an arc light at each side of of his copy, and many commercial photographers use the same arrangement for similar work. It is a simple matter to arrange two fairly high power lamps with reflectors that will throw the light directly on the copy.

The great advantage in artificial light is that it is sufficiently constant to enable one to judge the necessary exposure with the greatest accuracy. But where subjects vary greatly exposures will also vary greatly. The print that is yellowed with age or the sepia toned print on buff stock will often lead one to underexpose. It must be remembered that the yellowed highlights must have sufficient exposure to produce sufficient density in the negative regardless of the rest of the image.

Another mistake is to misjudge the contrast of the print that is to be copied. When the original photograph was made, part of the subject was in full light and part of it was in shadow, as is the case whenever you photograph a person, or an object that is not flat. When you copy the print all of it is in full light. There are no shadows produced by your light - only several tones, all in full light, and from every part of the paper on which the print is made there is much more light reflected then there was from any of the shadows of the original. You must make a negative that will, as nearly as possible, duplicate the contrasts of the negative from which the print you are copying was made.

For the reasons given above, an emulsion of considerable contrast must be used or contrast must be secured in some other way. A slow emulsion in most cases will give the contrast desired. Royal Process or Seed 23 Plates will give excellent results. If the print is yellowed with age a color-sensitive plate and a yellow filter will help you to secure increased contrast.

If Wratten Filters are used and the color of the filter is darker than the color of the yellowed highlights they will photograph as though they were white. Commercial Ortho Film or a Wratten Panchromatic Plate and the G Filter will usually give best results, though a lighter yellow filter such as the K2 may often be used.

Whether there is color to contend with or not a color-sensitive film or plate and a yellow filter will help contrast by cutting out a great amount of the surface reflection that flattens the copy negative.

Exposure is important, and much longer exposures will have to be given when filters are used. The results are worth the trouble, however, for if a print is yellowed with age and the yellow is eliminated by using a filter, the result is the same as would be secured if your copy negative had been made from a fresh, brilliant print.

Aside from the use of filters, the proper judgment of the strength of light and the exposure required for the nature of the print to be copied, the increased length of bellows and its effect on the value of your stops must be considered.

If you are making a copy the exact size of the original with a lens of 8-inch focus, the distance from lens to plate will be 16 inches and your f. 8 stop will be reduced in value to f. 16 and other stops in proportion.

Eastman Portrait Film Negative, Artura Print By Pasquale S. Culotta Baltimore, Md.

Eastman Portrait Film Negative, Artura Print By Pasquale S. Culotta Baltimore, Md.

The stop value is determined by dividing the effective aperture of the stop into the focal length of the lens. The f. 8 stop of a lens of 8-inch focus would be 1 inch in diameter. With the bellows extended to 11 inches or 16 inches or 22 inches, the f. 8 stop would have a value of f. 11 or f. 16 or f. 22.