THE copying of photographs is a subject that doesn't get a great deal of attention from writers on photographic subjects, and it is a profitable branch of the photographer's business that fails to arouse general enthusiasm.

The reason for this condition of affairs is plain to see. The man who handles the camera prefers to work with animate subjects. To him there is no thrill in producing a fine copy negative.

But there is at least one man in the studio who could enjoy making fine copy negatives. He is the man who is interested only in technical quality - the printer. Or in studios where there is also a dark-room man, he may be the man who can be made a copy expert.

One quite often hears the remark that there are no rules for making copies - that stop values are so greatly changed because of the bellows extensions necessary for copying that exposures are difficult to judge.

Here is a rule, however, which if followed will practically eliminate uncertainty and insure correct exposures for any copy that is to be made.

The first requirement is a uniform light and this is only possible when artificial light is used. We would suggest the use of two Eastman Floodlights, described on another page, or a similar arrangement of artificial lights.

The camera should have a fairly long bellows draw and if it is not mounted on a regular copying stand it can at least be used on a table with the copy board on a track so that the copy will always be parallel with the ground glass of the camera.

The lights are then placed at each side of the copy board with the light directed on the copy at an angle of 45° from each side. This should not produce reflections and should overcome graininess that is usually seen when the copy is lighted from one side. An absolute rule can not be given for the placing of lights but if the operator of the camera will place his head directly in front of the lens he can detect the source of a reflection or uneven illumination and remedy it by slightly changing the position of the lights.

Next in importance is the exposure. To use a rule for exposure it is necessary to determine upon a stop that can be used for all copy work. If that stop is f. 8 and the lens has a focal length of 10 inches it means that the diameter of the f. 8 stop is one-eight of ten inches.

Extend the bellows to 20 inches and the same stop would be one-sixteenth of the focal length so the stop would have a value of f. 16 instead of f. 8 and for every point between 10 and 20 inches the value of the stop would be different.

Measure the exact diameter of the stop you have decided can be used for all copy work and on a plain rule or a yard stick on which you have glued a strip of white paper, measure off and mark spaces, each space being exactly equal to the diameter of your stop. The spaces should then be numbered consecutively from one to the end of the rule.

If your rule has been marked correctly and you are using a 10 inch lens with an f. 8 stop, when your camera front has been drawn out to 10 inches the distance from ground glass to lens will measure exactly 8 on your scale. If drawn out to the point marked 11 on your scale it indicates that the stop at that extension will have a value of f.ll and if drawn out to 16 your stop will have a value of f.16. Your scale is simply marked off in standard stop diameters instead of inches and you have only to measure from ground glass to lens when you are ready to make an exposure to determine what value the standard stop has at the particular camera extension used. That is very easy.

Portrait Film Negative, Artura Print By Frank Scott Clark Detroit, Mich.

Portrait Film Negative, Artura Print By Frank Scott Clark Detroit, Mich.

Portrait Film Negative, Artura Print By Frank Scott Clark Detroit, Mich.

Portrait Film Negative, Artura Print By Frank Scott Clark Detroit, Mich.

Now to determine the correct exposure is equally simple once a few tests have been made, and anyone who does copying will be glad to do this much to save time and trouble.

The stop values which theoretically double the exposure are f. 8, 11,16, 22, 32, 45, 64, 90 and 128. If after making your tests you find that the correct exposure at 11 on your scale, indicating a stop value of f.ll, is 10 seconds you know that the exposure at 8 would be 5 seconds, at 16, 20 seconds, at 22, 40 seconds and so on.

These exposures will be practically standard at all times so long as the same source of artificial light is used and it will be found very easy to estimate exposures when the camera extension comes in between any of these markings on your scale.

This may seem to be a little trouble on first reading, but when one considers how difficult it is to estimate exposure without some such simple method of calculating the value of stops, the plan we have outlined will be appreciated.

For some copy work, ordinary films or plates will answer but if the original is yellowed with age or stained, an orthochromatic or panchromatic film or plate and a filter will produce a better result.

In using filters and panchromatic films for copies containing color, the same rules that apply to photographing the subject direct will also apply in copying. This subject is thoroughly covered in the book, "Color Plates, Films and Filters for Commercial Photography" which may be had from your dealer free on request.

To secure a clean copy of a stained or yellowed print every trace of the stain, which would be accentuated by using an ordinary plate or film, can be removed by using an orthochromatic or panchromatic film or plate and a yellow filter. The filter, however, must be darker than the stain and should be one of the Wratten K series, Kl, K2 or K3, or if the stain is a dark yellow the Wratten G. The filter cuts out the yellow and allows the print to photograph as though it were a clean black and white print.

Many photographers do not like to make copies and when they turn down a copy job do not realize that in doing so they are turning away a prospective customer for other work. We have tried to show how copying can be made quite simple and we would also like to impress upon the photographer the importance of doing such work and doing it well.

There is almost always a sentiment connected with the print that is brought in to be copied, and a cheerful acceptance of such work and a good result will almost always make a loyal customer. There should be a good profit in copying, however, and this in itself should be sufficient incentive to make a real effort to get copying.

Portrait Film Negative, Artura Print By Frank Scott Clark Detroit, Mich.

Portrait Film Negative, Artura Print By Frank Scott Clark Detroit, Mich.

Portrait Film Negative, Artura Print By Frank Scott Clark Detroit, Mich.

Portrait Film Negative, Artura Print By Frank Scott Clark Detroit, Mich.