Section 1. Meaning of Words and Phrases. - a. The words and phrases used in this Act and in proceedings pursuant hereto shall, unless the same be inconsistent with the context, be construed as follows:

(1) "A person against whom a petition has been filed" shall include a person who has filed a voluntary petition;

(2) "Adjudication" shall mean the date of the entry of a decree that the defendant, in a bankruptcy proceeding, is a bankrupt, or if such decree is appealed from, then the date when such decree is finally confirmed;

(3) "Appellate courts" shall include the circuit courts of appeals of the United States, the supreme courts of the Territories, and the Supreme Court of the United States;

(4) "Bankrupt" shall include a person against whom an involuntary petition or an application to set a composition aside or to revoke a discharge has been filed, or who has filed a voluntary petition, or who has been adjudged a bankrupt;

(5) "Clerk" shall mean the clerk of a court of bankruptcy;

(6) "Corporations" shall mean all bodies having any of the powers and privileges of private corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships, and shall include limited or other partnership associations organized under laws making the capital subscribed alone responsible for the debts of the association;

(7) "Court" shall mean the court of bankruptcy in which the proceedings are pending, and may include the referee;

(8) "Courts of bankruptcy" shall include the district courts of the United States and of the Territories, the supreme court of the District of Columbia, and the United States court of the Indian Territory, and of Alaska;

(9) "Creditor" shall include any one who owns a demand or claim provable in bankruptcy, and may include his duly authorized agent, attorney, or proxy;

(10) "Date of bankruptcy," or "time of bankruptcy," or "commencement of proceedings," or "bankruptcy," with reference to time, shall mean the date when the petition was filed;

(11) "Debt" shall include any debt, demand, or claim provable in bankruptcy;

(12) "Discharge" shall mean the release of a bankrupt from all of his debts which are provable in bankruptcy, except such as are excepted by this Act;

(13) "Document" shall include any book, deed, or instrument in writing;

(14) "Holiday" shall include Christmas, the Fourth of July, the Twenty-second of February, and any day appointed by the President of the United States or the Congress of the United States as a holiday or as a day of public fasting or thanksgiving;

(15) A person shall be deemed insolvent within the provisions of this Act whenever the aggregate of his property, exclusive of any property which he may have conveyed, transferred, concealed, or removed, or permitted to be concealed or removed, with intent to defraud, hinder or delay his creditors, shall not, at a fair valuation, be sufficient in amount to pay his debts;

(16) "Judge" shall mean a judge of a court of bankruptcy, not including the referee;

(17) "Oath" shall include affirmation;

(18) "Officer" shall include clerk, marshal, receiver, referee, and trustee, and the imposing of a duty upon or the forbidding of an act by any officer shall include his successor and by any person authorized by law to perform the duties of such officer;

(19) "Persons" shall include corporations, except where otherwise specified, and officers, partnerships, and women, and when used with reference to the commission of acts which are herein forbidden shall include persons who are participants in the forbidden acts, and the agents, officers, and members of the board of directors or trustees, or other similar controlling bodies or corporations;

(20) "Petition" shall mean a paper filed in a court of bankruptcy or with a clerk or deputy clerk by a debtor praying for the benefits of this Act, or by creditors alleging the commission of an act of bankruptcy by a debtor therein named;

(21) "Referee" shall mean the referee who has jurisdiction of the case or to whom the case has been referred, or anyone acting in his stead;

(22) "Conceal" shall include secrete, falsify, and mutilate;

(23) "Secured creditor" shall include a creditor who has security for his debt upon the property of the bankrupt of a nature to be assignable under this Act, or who owns such a debt for which some indorser, surety, or other persons secondarily liable for the bankrupt has such security upon the bankrupt's assets;

(24) "States" shall include the Territories, the Indian Territory, Alaska, and the District of Columbia;

(25) "Transfer" shall include the sale and every other and different mode of disposing of or parting with property, or the possession of property, absolutely or conditionally, as a payment, pledge, mortgage, gift, or security;

(26) "Trustee" shall include all of the trustees of an estate;

(27) "Wage-earner" shall mean an individual who works for wages, salary, or hire, at a rate of compensation not exceeding one thousand five hundred dollars per year;

(28) Words importing the masculine gender may be applied to and include corporations, partnerships, and women;

(29) Words importing the plural number may be applied to and mean only a single person or thing;

(30) Words importing the singular number may be applied to and mean several persons or things.