Where an agreement in writing purporting to contain the whole contract of the parties is unobjectionable, it has been urged that a collateral oral agreement for usury cannot render the written contract invalid since the parol evidence rule will deprive the collateral agreement of validity, and, therefore, make the writing the whole contract between the parties.99 But this argument is unsound. Here, as generally, in dealing with illegal contracts, it is the wrongful nature of the plaintiff's endeavor which deprives him of the right to enforce the contract; 1 and it is generally held that the parol evidence rule will not save the written agreement from the defence of usury.2

95 Brown v. Grundy, 111 Fed. 15; Aldrich v. McClay, 75 Ark. 387, 87 S. W. 813; Garvin v. Linton, 62 Ark. 370, 35 S. W. 430, 37 S. W. 569; Rushing v. Willingham, 105 Ga. 166, 31 S. E. 154, Cooper v. Nock, 27 111. 301; Brown v. Cass County Bank, 86 Iowa, 527, 53 N. W. 410; Flax v. Mutual Ac. Loan Assoc, 198 Mich. 676, 165 N. W. 835; Ward v. Anderberg, 31 Minn. 304, 17 N. W. 630; Smythe v. Allen, 67 Miss. 146, 6 So. 627; Dodds v. McCormick Harvesting Maoh. Co., 62 Neb. 750, 87 N. W. 911; Bevier v. Covell, 87 N. Y. 50; Covington . Fisher, 22 Okla. 207, 97 Pac. 615; McElfatrick v. Hicks, 21 Fa. St. 402; American Bank v. Sublett, 104 S. C. 366, 89 S. E. 319.

96 In Morton v. Thurber, 85 N. Y. 550, the lender exacted legal interest and a further sum which he falsely represented to be for expenses incurred in securing the money. It was held that the borrower's ignorance of the falsity of this statement prevented the transaction from being usurious. See also Von Haus v. Soule, 146 N. Y. App. Div. 731, 131 N. Y. S. 512; Smythe v. Allen, 67 Miss. 146, 6 So. 627.

97 Brown v. Grundy, 111 Fed. 15 (Ark.); Wright v. Elliott, 1 Stew. (Ala.) 391; Garvin p. Linton, 62 Ark. 370; 35 S. W. 430, 37 S. W. 569; Lukens v. Haslett, 37 Minn. 441, 35 N. W. 265; Craig o. Pleiss, 26 Pa. 271; First Nat. Bank v. Plankington, 27 Wis. 177, 9 Am. Rep. 453.

98 United States Bank v. Waggener, 9 Pet. 378, 9 L. Ed. 163; Cooper p. Nock, 27 111. 301; Gould p. St. Anthony Falls Bank, 98 Minn. 420, 108 N. W. 951; Hamilton p. Moore, 7 Humph. (Term.) 35. See also Lynn v. McCue, 94 Kans. 761, 773,147 Pac. 808.