A partnership may become liable on the unauthorized contracts of its members, by ratification thereof.1 Acquiescence by all the partners in a contract, whether before or after the contract is executed, makes them liable thereon, and acquiescence after the execution of the contract is ratification.2 Thus a chattel mortgage given by one partner without authority is valid if the rest acquiesce therein.3 So if a partner is authorized only to obtain an option on certain property, and he purchases it and gives the firm's note, subsequent acquiescence by the remaining partners makes such contract valid.4 Ratification is also effected by receiving the benefits of the transaction.5 So receiving money obtained from notes is a ratification thereof.0 Taking possession and paying rent under a lease is ratification by the lessee, and receiving such rent is ratification by the lessor.7 Partial ratification is impossible. Thus where a partner sold goods under an agreement that a part of the purchase price should be set off against his individual debt, the partnership cannot recover such part and affirm the sale.8 Ratification to be binding must be made with full knowledge of the material facts. Thus part payment by the firm's checks without the knowledge of the other partner, is not ratification.9 So a ratification of a note under seal has been held invalid if the partner so ratifying did not know that it was under seal.10 A ratification has been held binding where the partner had not full knowledge, but knew facts enough to put him on inquiry which would have resulted in full knowledge.11 Ratification is binding though made in ignorance of the legal effect of the contract.12 The partner who made the contract cannot ratify it.13

2 Thompson v. Bank, 111 U. S. 529; Webster v. Clark, 34 Fla. 637; 43 Am. St. Rep. 217; 27 L. R. A. 126; 16 So. 601; Wood v. Pennell, 51 Me. 52; Parchen v. Anderson, 5 Mont. 438; 51 Am. Rep. 65; 5 Pac. 588; Carey v. Marshall, 67 N. J. L. 236; 51 Atl. 698; Cook v. Slate Co., 36 O. S. 135; 38 Am. Rep. 568; Den-ithorne v. Hook, 112 Pa. St. 240; 3 Atl. 777; Hicks v. Cram, 17 Vt. 449.

3 Thornton v. McDonald, 108 Ga. 3; 33 S. E. 680; Baldwin's Estate, 170 N. Y. 156; 58 L. R. A. 122; 63 N. E. 62.

4 Wilson v. Edmonds, 130 U. S. 94

472; Fisher v. McDonald Co., 85 111. App. 653; Fletcher v. Pullen, 70 Md. 205; 14 Am. St. Rep. 355; 16 Atl. 887.

5 Nightingale v. Furniture Co., 71 Fed. 234; Thornton v. McDonald, 108 Ga. 3; 33 S. E. 680; Pratt v. Langdon, 97 Mass. 97; 93 Am. Dec. 61; Martin v. Fewell, 79 Mo. 401.

6 Barwick v. Alderman, - Fla. -; 35 So. 13.

7 Brooks-Waterfield v. Jackson (Ky.), 53 S. W. 41.

1 McGahan v. Bank, 156 U. S, 219; Pacific, etc., Ins. Co. v. Fisher,

109 Cal. 566; 42 Pac. 154; Sparks V. Flannery, 104 Ga. 323; 30 S. E.

823; Buettner v. Steinbrecher, 91 Ia. 588; 60 N. W. 177; Corbett v. Cannon, 57 Kan. 127; 45 Pac. 80; Burk-hardt v. Yates, 161 Mass. 591; 37 N. E. 759; Koch v. Endriss, 97 Mich. 444; 56 N. W. 847; Edwards v. Spalding, 20 Mont. 54, 60; 49 Pac. 443, 591; Columbia National Bank v. Rice, 48 Neb. 428; 67 N. W. 165; Columbus State Bank v. Dole, 56 Neb. 508; 76 N. W. 1054; Mc-Naughten v. Partridge, 11 Ohio 223; 38 Am. Dec. 731; Miller v. Glass Works, 172 Pa. St. 70; 33 Atl. 350; Gutheil v. Gilmer, 23 Utah 84; 63 Pac. 817.

2 Sparks v. Flannery, 104 Ga. 323; 30 S. E. 823; Corbett v. Cannon, 57 Kan. 127; 45 Pac. 80; Clippinger v. Starr, 130 Mich. 463; 90 N. W. 280; Columbus State Bank v. Dole, 56

Neb. 508; 76 N. W. 1054; Rock v. Collins, 99 Wis. 630; 67 Am. St. Rep. 885; 75 N. W. 426.

3 Columbus State Bank v. Dole, 56 Neb. 508; 76 N. W. 1054; Rock v. Collins. 99 Wis. 630; 67 Am. St. Rep. 885; 75 N. W. 426.

4 Tyler v. Waddingham, 58 Conn. 375; 8 L. R. A. 657; 20 Atl. 335.

5 Smith v. Packard, 98 Fed. 793; 39 C. C. A. 294.

6 O'Connor v. Sherley, 107 Ky. 70; 52 S. W. 1056.

7 Golding v. Brennan, 183 Mass. 286; 67 N. E. 239.

8 Grover v. Smith, 165 Mass. 132; 52 Am. St. Rep. 506; 42 N. E. 555.

9 Meyer v. Hegler, 121 Cal. 682; 54 Pac. 271.

10 Hull v. Young, 30 S. C. 121. 2 L. R. A. 521; 8 S. E. 695.