11 Illinois. Purvis v. Shuman, 273 111. 286, L. R. A. 1917A, 121, 112 N. E. 679; Midland Ry. v. Fisher, 125 Ind. 19, 21 Am. St. Rep. 189, 8 L. R. A. 604, 24 N. E. 756.

Ohio. Pittsburgh, etc., Ry. v. Bos-worth, 46 O. S. 81, 2 L. R. A. 199, 18 N. E. 533.

Oregon. Brown v. Southern Pacific Ry.. 36 Or. 128, 78 Am. St. Rep. 761, 47 L. R. A. 409, 58 Pac. 1104.

Tennessee. Doty v. Chattanooga Union Ry., 103 Tenn. 564, 48 L. R. A. 160, 53 S. W. 944.

"The test whether a covenant runs with the land or is merely personal is whether the covenant concerns the thing granted and the occupation or enjoyment of it, or is a collateral and personal covenant, not immediately concerning the thing granted. If a covenant concerns the land and the enjoyment of it, its benefit or obligation passes with the ownership; but, to have that effect, the covenant must respect the thing granted or demised, and the act to be done or permitted must concern the land or estate conveyed. An illustration of the rule is found in Wiggins Ferry Co. v. Ohio & M. R. Co., 94 111 83. In that case the Wiggins Ferry Company conveyed to a railroad company rights and easements in two parcels of ground, and the railroad company covenanted to employ the ferry company to transport across the Mississippi River persons and property brought to the river upon the railroad or to be transported on the railroad. The Ohio & Mississippi Railway Company purchased the railroad property, and the suit was for a breach of covenant. The court said that in order that a covenant may run with the land, its performance or nonperformance must affect the nature, quality, or value of the property demised, independent of collateral circumstances, or must affect the mode of enjoyment. The covenant, having nothing to do with the two parcels of land in which the easement was granted, was held to be personal." Purvis v. Shuman, 273 111. 286, L. R. A. 1917A, 121, 112 N. E. 679.

It is generally said that covenants must "touch and concern" the realty conveyed in order to run with the land. A contract not contained in a conveyance of some estate in realty can not run with such land.12 A covenant by one who has only a dower interest in the realty conveyed, is said not to run with the land.13

Covenants of warranty on the part of the grantor of the fee,14 for quiet enjoyment,15 that grantor and those claiming under him would never claim any interest or estate in the land conveyed;16 a contract by an adjoining lot owner to pay the other one half the cost of constructing a party-wall when he should make use of it;17 or to refrain from building within a certain distance of the realty which is conveyed;18 or to grant a certain amount of power from a wheel in the mill belonging to the grantor;19 to stop trains on the land of the grantor; 20 and a covenant to erect a depot in consideration of a grant of a right of way,21 run with the land up to the time that they are broken. A covenant of right to convey,21 or a covenant of seizin,23 or a covenant against encumbrances,24 are each by the weight of authority broken when made, if at all, and therefore can not run with the land. In England,25 and in some American jurisdictions,26 such covenants are held to be continuing covenants and to run with the land. This question is complicated with considerations of what constitutes a breach. Covenants which require affirmative action on the part of the grantor,27 such as a contract to haul goods,28 or to construct and maintain a shaft to carry power,29 have been held not to run with the land. However, a contract to operate a street railroad,30 or to build a side-track,31 have been held to run with the land.

12 Ford v. Oregon Electric Ry., 60 Or. 278, 36 L. R. A. (N.S.) 358, Ann. Cas. 1914A, 280, 117 Pac. 809; Hurxthal v. Lumber Co., 53 W. Va. 87, 97 Am. St. Rep. 954, 44 S. E. 520.

13 H. T. & C. Co. v. Whitehouse, 47 Utah 323, 154 Pac. 950.

See also, Warner v. Flack, 278 111. 303, 116 N. E. 197; White v. Grand Rapids & I. Ry. Co., 190 Mich. 1, 155 N. W. 719.

14 United States. Peters v. Bowman, 98 U. S. 56, 25 L. ed. 91.

Illinois. Wead v. Larkin, 54 111. 489, 5 Am. Rep. 149.

Kentucky. Thomas v. Bland, 91 Ky. 1, 14 S. W. 955; Asher Lumber Co. v. Cornett (Ky.), 63 S. W. 974; Shepherd v. Bank of Montreal, 156 Ky. 495, 161 S. W. 214.

Nebraska. Walton v. Campbell, 51 Neb. 788, 71 N. W. 737; Troxell v. Stevens, 57 Neb. 329, 77 N. W. 781.

Ohio. King v. Kerr, 5 Ohio 154, 22 Am. Dec. 777.

Pennsylvania. Williams v. O'Donnell, 225 Pa. St. 321, 26 L. R. A. (N.S.) 1094, 74 Atl. 205.

Tennessee. Kenney v. Norton, 57 Tenn. (10 Heisk.) 384.

Vermont. Tillotson v. Prichard, 60 Vt. 94, 6 Am. St. Rep. 95, 14 Atl. 302.

West Virginia. McConaughey v. Bennett, 50 W. Va. 172, 40 S. E. 540.

Wisconsin. Patterson v. Cappon, 125 Wis. 198, 102 N. W. 1083.

15 Butler v. Barnes, 60 Conn. 170, 12 L. R. A. 273, 21 Atl. 419; Fisher v. Parry, 68 Ind. 465; Schwallback v. Ry., 69 Wis. 292; 2 Am. St. Rep. 740, 34 N. W. 128.

16 Trull v. Eastman, 44 Mass. (3 Met.) 121, 37 Am. Dec. 126.

17 Parsons v. Baltimore, etc., Association, 44 W. Va. 335, 67 Am. St. Rep. 769, 29 S. E. 999 [citing Hart v. Lyon, 90 N. Y. 663].

See also, Crawford v. Krollpfeiffer, 195 N. Y. 185, 133 Am. St. Rep. 783, 88 N. E. 29.

But in Lincoln v. Burrage, 177 Mass. 378, 52 L. R. A. 110, 59 N. E. 67, a similar covenant was held not to run with the land in favor of the grantor personally.

18 Hennen v. Deveny, 71 W. Va. 629, L. R. A. 1917A, 524, 77 S. E. 142.

19 Miller v. Clary, 210 N. Y. 127, L. R. A. 1918E, 222, 103 N. E. 1114.

20 Ford v. Oregon Electric Ry., 60 Or. 278, 36 L. R. A. (N.S.) 358, Ann. Cas. 1914A, 280, 117 Pac. 809.

21 Lyman v. Ry., 190 111. 320, 52 L. R. A. 645, 60 N. E. 515.

22 United States. Le Roy v. Beard, 49 U. S. (8 How.) 451, 12 L. ed. 1151.

Massachusetts. Ladd v. Noyes, 137 Mass. 151.

Nebraska. Real v. Hollister, 20 Neb. 112,29 N. W. 189.

New York. Mygatt v. Coe, 124 N. Y. 212, 11 L. R. A. 646, 26 N. E. 611.

North Dakota. Browne v. Walcott, 1 N. D. 497, 48 N. W. 426.

23 Bolinger v. Brake, 57 Kan. 663, 47 Pac. 537; Bryant v. Mosher, 96 Neb. 555, 148 N. W. 329; Faller v. Davis, 30 Okla. 56, Ann. Cas. 1913B, 1181, 118 Pac. 382.

24 Alabama. Brodie v. New England Mortgage Security Co., 166 Ala. 170, 51 So. 861.

California. Lawrence v. Montgomery, 37 Cal. 183; Woodward v. Brown, 119 Cal. 283, 63 Am. St. Rep. 108, 51 Pac. 2, 542; McPike v. Heaton, 131 Cal. 109, 82 Am. St. Rep. 335, 63 Pac. 179.

Connecticut. Mitchell v. Warner, 5 Conn. 497; Musial v. Kudlik, 87 Conn. 164, Ann. Cas. 1914D, 1172, 87 Atl. 551.

Massachusetts. Smith v. Richards, 155 Mass. 79, 28 N. E. 1132.

Michigan. Davenport v. Davenport, 52 Mich. 587, 18 N. W. 371.

Nebraska. Chapman v. Kimball, 7 Neb. 399; Sears v. Broady, 66 Neb. 207, 92 N. W. 214; Water's Estate v. Bagley (Neb.), 92 N. W. 637.

New Hampshire. Moore v. Merrill, 17 N. H. 75, 43 Am. Dec. 593.

Tennessee. Kenney v. Norton, 57 Tenn. (10 Heisk.) 380.

Vermont. Swasey v. Brooks, 30 Vt. 692.

Virginia. Marbury v. Thornton, 82 Va. 702, 1 S. E. 909.

West Virginia. Smith v. White, 71 W. Va. 639. 48 L. R. A. (N.S.) 623, 78 S. E. 378.

25 Kingdon v. Nottle, 1 M. & S. 355, 4 M. & S. 53.

26 Illinois. Hazle v. Bondy, 173 111. 302, 50 N. E. 671.

Indiana. Scott v. Stetter, 128 Ind. 385, 27 N. E. 721.

Iowa. Boon v. McHenry, 55 Ia. 202, 7 N. W. 503.

Minnesota. Security Bank v. Holmes, 68 Minn. 538, 71 N. W. 699, s. c, 65 Minn. 531, 68 N. W. 113.

New York. Geiszler v. De Graaf, 166 N. Y. 339, 82 Am. St. Rep. 659, 59 N. E. 993.

Ohio. Foote v. Burnet, 10 Ohio 317, 36 Am. Deo. 90; Lescaleet v. Rirkner, 16 Ohio C. C. 461, 9 Ohio C. I). 422.

27 London & Southwestern Ry. v. Gomm, L. R. 20 Ch. D. 562; Kidder v.