L. R. A. (N.S.) 226, 117 N. W. 1118; Lanz v. Schumann, 175 Ia. 542, 154 N. W. 911; Moore v. St. Paul Fire &. Marine Insurance Co., 176 Ia. 549, 156 N. W. 676; Dilenbeck v. Herrold, - Ia. - , 164 N. W. 869; Wheeler v. Schilder, - Ia. - , 167 N. W. 534.

Kentucky. Edwards v. Ballard, 53 Ky. (14 B. Mon.) 289; Provident, etc., Society v. Johnson. 115 Ky. 84, 72 S. W. 754; Commonwealth v. Starks, 179 Ky. 582, 200 S. W. 939.

Massachusetts. Baker v. Briggs, 25 Mass. (8 Pick.) 122, 19 Am. Dec. 311; Wilson v. Mulloney, 185 Mass. 430, 70 N. E. 448; Cohen v. Edinberg, 225 Mass. 177, 114 N. E. 294 (obiter, as stipulation made at trial had effect of rendering evidence inadmissible). O'Neil v. National Oil Co., 231 Mass. 20, 120 N. E. 107.

Minnesota. Pfeifer v. Ins. Co., 62 Minn. 536, 64 N. W. 1018; Witzel v. Zuel, 90 Minn. 340, 96 N. W. 1124.

Nebraska. Crockett v. Miller (Neb.), 96 N. W. 491; First National Bank v. Tolerton (Neb.), 97 N. W. 248; Fitzgerald v. Union Stock Yards Co., 89 Neb. 393, 33 L. R. A. (N.S.) 983, 131 N. W. 612; Hauth v. Sambo, 100 Neb. 160, 158 N. W. 1036.

North Dakota. Roberts v. Bank, 8 N. D. 474, 79 N. W. 993.

Ohio. Clapp v. Banking Co., 50 O. S. 528, 35 N. E. 308.

Pennsylvania. Simon v. Emery, 254 Pa. St. 569, 99 Atl. 78.

South Carolina. Gwathmey v. Bur-giss, 104 S. Car. 280, 88 S. E. 816.

South Dakota. Schuler v. Bank, 13 S. D. 188, 82 N. W. 389.

Tennessee. Myers v. Taylor, 107 Tenn. 364, 64 S. W. 719.

Texas. Kahle v. Stone, 95 Tex. 106, 65 S. W. 623; Oriental Investment Co. v. Barclay, 25 Tex. Civ. App. 543, 64 S. W. 80.

Utah. Olmstead v. Ry., 27 Utah 515, 76 Pac. 557; Plant v. Ritter, 47 Utah 506, 155 Pac. 426.

Washington. Elliott v. S. S. Co., 22 Wash. 220, 60 Pac. 410; Ransom v. Wickstrom, 84 Wash. 419, L. R. A. 1916A, 588, 146 Pac. 1041.

2Barreda v. Silsbee, 62 U. S. (21 How.) 146, 16 L. ed. 86.

3 California. Dunn v. Price, 112 Cal. 46, 44 Pac. 354; Budd v. Hughes, - Cal. - , 171 Pac. 287.

Indiana. White v. Woods, 183 Ind. 500, 109 N. E. 761.

Iowa. Lanz v. Schumann, 175 Ia. 542, 154 N. W. 911; Wheeler v. Schilder, - Ia. - , 167 N. W. 534.

Kentucky. Williams v. National Cash Register Co.. 157 Ky. 836, 164 S. W. 112.

Minnesota. Rupley v. Frazer, 132 Minn. 311, 156 N. W. 350.

New York. McMaster v. Ins. Co., 55 N. Y. 222, 14 Am. Rep. 239.

Pennsylvania. Simon v. Emery, 254 Pa. St. 569, 99 Atl. 78.

4 United States. Sigua Iron Co. v. Greene, 88 Fed. 207, 31 C. C. A. 477.

Iowa. Wheeler v. Schilder, - Ia. - , 167 N. W. 534.

Pennsylvania. Simon v. Emery, 254 Pa. St. 569, 99 Atl. 78.

Tennessee. Nashville Interurban Ry. v. Gregory, 137 Tenn. 422, 193 S. W. 1053.

Virginia. Bruce v. Lumber Co., 87 Va. 381, 24 Am. St. Rep. 657, 13 S. E. 153.

Washington. Ransom v. Wickstrom, 84 Wash. 419, L. R. A. 1916A, 588, 146 Pac. 1041.

5United States. Sigua Iron Co. v. Greene, 88 Fed. 207, 31 C. C. A. 477.

Alabama. Coleman v. Pike County, 83 Ala. 326, 3 Am. St. Rep. 746, 3 So. 755.

Minnesota. Rupley v. Fraser, 132 Minn. 311, 156 N. W. 350.

New York. Tyson v. Post, 108 N. Y. 217, 2 Am. St. Rep. 409, 15 N. E. 316.

Pennsylvania. Imperial Ins. Co. v. Dunham, 117 Pa. St. 460, 2 Am. St. Rep. 686.

6 Iowa. Aultman Engine & Thresher Co. v. Greenlee, 134 Ia. 368, 111 N. W 1007; In re Shields Bros., 134 Ia. 559, 10 L. R. A. (N.S.) 1061, 111 N. W. 963.

Kentucky. Marks v. Hardy's Admr., 117 Ky. 663, 4 Am. & Eng. Ann. Cas. 814, 78 S. W. 864, 1105.

North Dakota. Roberts v. Bank, 8 N. D. 474, 79 N. W. 993.

Oregon. Pacific Biscuit Co. v. Dug-per, 42 Or. 513, 70 Pac. 523; Smith v. Farmers' & Merchants' National Bank, 57 Or. 82, 110 Pac. 410.

Washington. Carmack v. Drum, 32 Wash. 236. 73 Pac. 377, 785.

Contra, Lawson v. Mullinix, 104 Md. 156, 64 Atl. 938.

7 O'Neil v. National Oil Co., 231 Mass. 20, 120 N. E. 107.

8 Scales v. First State Bank, 88 Or. 490, 172 Pac. 499.

9 Scales v. First State Bank, 88 Or. 490, 172 Pac. 499.

10Belnap v. Condon, 34 Utah 213. 23 L. R. A. (N.S.) 601, 97 Pac. 111.

11Belnap v. Condon, 34 Utah 213, 23 L. R. A. (N.S.) 601, 97 Pac. 111.

12 Powell v. Construction Co., 88 Tenn. 692, 17 Am. St. Rep. 925, 13 S. W. 691.

13 Schuler v. Bank, 13 S. D. 188, 82 N. W. 389.

14 Deal v. Ford, - Mo. - , 204 8. W. 181; Plant v. Ritter, 47 Utah 506, 155 Pac. 426.

15 White v. Woods, 183 Ind. 500, 109 N. E. 761.

16Rupley v. Fraser, 132 Minn. 311, 156 N. W. 350.

17 Dilenbeck v. Herrold, - Ia. - . 164 N. W. 869.

18Simon v. Emery, 254 Pa. St. 569, 99 Atl. 78.

19 Thompson v. Cody, 100 Ga. 771, 28 S. E. 669.

20 Ransom v. Wickstrom, 84 Wash. 419, L. R. A. 1916A, 588, 146 Pac. 1041.

On the other hand, it has been held that the parol evidence rule operates in favor of a third person in the same way and to the same extent that it operates between the parties to the instrument.28 Where this view is taken, an injured party who has given a release to one of two joint wrongdoers can not contradict the legal effect of such release in an action between himself and another of such joint wrongdoers.29 A grantor has not been permitted to contradict the provisions of a deed or the legal effect thereof in litigation between himself and a third person involving his ownership in such realty.30 If A has conveyed realty to B under a deed which contains no reservation of certain buildings, and such buildings are destroyed by X's negligence, it is held that A can not show in an action against X that such buildings were reserved orally.31

21 Hamlin v. Simpson, 105 Ia. 125, 44 L. R. A. 397, 74 N. W. 906.

Contra, Baer's Appeal, 127 Pa. St. 300, 4 L. R. A. 609, where an administrator who had deposited money of the estate in a bank, taking a certificate of deposit, was not allowed to show a contract between himself and the bank permitting him to withdraw the money at any time to relieve himself from liability after the hank had failed.

22 Folinsbee v. Sawyer, 157 N. Y. 196, 51 N. E. 994; Godefroy v. Hupp, 93 Wash. 371, 160 Pac. 1056.

23 Cohen v. Edinberg, 225 Mass. 177, 114 N. E. 294 (obiter, as stipulation at trial rendered evidence inadmissible);

Godefroy v. Hupp, 93 Wash. 371, 160 Pac. 1056.

24 Harvey v. Henry, 108 Ia. 168, 78 N. W. 850

25 Elliott v S. S. Co., 22 Wash. 220, 60 Pac. 410.

26 In re Shields, 134 Ia. 559, 10 L. R. A. (N.S.) 1061, 111 N. W. 963; In re Lamb, 140 Ia. 89, 18 L. R. A. (N.S.) 226, 117 N. W. 1118; Commonwealth v. Starks, 179 Ky. 582, 200 S. W. 939.

27 Walker v. State, 117 Ala. 42, 23 So. 149.

28Allen v. Ruland, 79 Conn. 405, 118 Am. St. Rep. 146, 65 Atl. 138.

29 Allen v. Ruland, 79 Conn. ' 405, 118 Am. St. Rep. 146, 65 Atl. 138.