It may be here briefly noted that a different rule obtains if the contract under which have arisen rights which are sought to be assigned has been so far performed as to pass property rights. Thus if property is obtained by fraud in the inducement, and such contract is so far performed as to pass a title which is at least voidable, a bona fide purchaser for value from such fraudulent vendee can hold such property as against the original vendor.1 The term "bona fide" purchaser is used to include a trustee without notice for bona fide creditors.2 So land transferred oy vendee to his father in payment of an actual debt can not be charged with trie amount due from the vendee to co-vendee by reason of false representations as to the price of the land.3 If the property is transferred to one not a bona fide purchaser, as to one with notice of the fraud,4 or one who aids in such fraud,5 or one who does not pay value therefor, as a devisee,6 or a judgment creditor,7 or an officer who levies on the property, sells it and has the proceeds in his hands,8 such person is liable to the defrauded vendor to the extent of the property in his hands. One who is aware of facts which are enough to put him on inquiry whereby he would have discovered the true state of affairs, is not a bona fide purchaser of property,9 as where he knows that the mortgagor is old and infirm, that the mortgage covers his entire property and that the mortgagee is insolvent.10 If conveyed to one who has notice of the fraud, he is liable, even if he has sold the property as agent of the vendee and transmitted the proceeds to vendee.11

10Stoddart v. Union Trust Co. [1912], 1 K. B. 181.

1 1llinois. Burton v. Perry, 146 111. 71, 34 N. E. 60; Moore v. Recek, 163 111. 17, 44 N. E. 868; Bunn v. Schnell-bacher, 163 111. 328, 45 N. E. 227.

Indiana. Moore v. Moore, 112 Ind. 140, 2 Am. St. Rep. 170, 13 N. E. 673.

New York. Bank v. Bank, 150 N. Y. 456, 54 N. E. 66; Phelps v. McQuade, 220 N. Y. 232, 115 N. E. 441.

North Dakota. Ditton v. Purcell, 21 N. D. 648, 132 N. W. 347.

Ohio. Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Ry. v. Good, 82 O. S. 278, 20 L. R. A. (N.S.) 713, 02 N. E. 435.

Pennsylvania. Dettra v. Kestner, 147 Pa. St. 566, 23 Atl. 889; Schwartz v. McCloskey, 156 Pa. St. 258, 27 Atl. 300.

Virginia. Oberdorfer v. Meyer, 88 Va. 384, 13 S. E. 756.

2 Oberdorfer v. Meyer, 88 Va. 384, 13 S. E. 750.

3 Bunn v. Schnellbacher, 163 111. 328, 45 N. E. 227.

4 Lewis v. Mortgage Co., 94 Ga. 572, 21 S. E. 224; Lillibridge v. Walsh, 97 Mich. 450, 56 N. W. 854; the Arnaud v. Peet, 49 N. J. Eq. 346, 25 Atl. 964; Stone v. Oil Co., 188 Pa. St. 602, 41 Atl. 748, 1119; Stone v. Oil Co., 188 Pa. St. 614, 41 Atl. 748, 41 Atl. 1119; Hofecker v. Pfeil, 193 Pa. St. 288, 44 Atl. 421; Knox v. Earbee (Tex. Civ. App.), 35 S. W. 186. Even if the statutory notice necessary to give notice to bona fide purchasers is not filed. Lillibridge v. Walsh, 97 Mich. 459, 56 N. W. 854.

5Horter v. Herndon, 12 Tex. Civ. App. 637, 35 S. W. 80.

6 Rhino v. Emery, 72 Fed. 382.

7 Hofecker v. Pfeil, 193 Pa. St. 288, 44 Atl. 421.

8Converse v. Sickles, 146 N. Y. 200, 48 Am. St. Rep. 790, 40 N. E. 777.

If possession passed, but not title, the owner may recover the property even from a bona fide holder.12 The transfer of the possession of personalty for payment in cash,13 as a condition precedent to passing title, does not pass even a voidable title until such condition is complied with,14 or for security.15

9Reddin v. Dunn, 2 Colo. App. 518, 31 Pac. 947.

10 lbraith v. McLaughlin, 91 la. 399, 59 N. W. 338.

11 Morrow Shoe Mfg. Co. v. Shoe Co., 57 Fed. 685, 24 L. R. A. 417 [affirmed in 60 Fed. 341].

12 Johnson v. Iankovetz, 57 Or. 24, 29 L. R. A. (N.S.) 709, 110 P-.c. 398.

13 Alabama. Drake v. Scott, 136 Ala. 261, 96 Am. St. Rep. 25, 33 So. 873.

Arkansas. Jones v. Southern Cooperage Co., 94 Ark. 621, 127 S. W. 704.

Indiana. Evansville & Terre Haute Ry. v. Erwin, 84 Ind. 457.

Iowa. Amundson v. Standard Printing & Mfg. Co., 140 la. 464, 118 N. W. 789.

Maine. Merrill Furniture Co. v. Hill, 87 Me. 17, 32 Atl. 712.

Massachusetts. Commonwealth v. Devlin, 141 Mass. 423, 6 N. E. 64.

Minnesota. National Bank v. Chicago, Burlington & Northern Ry., 44 Minn. 224, 20 Am. St. Rep. 566, 9 L. R. A. 263, 46 N. W. 342.

Missouri. Johnson-Brinkman Commission Co. v. Central Bank, 116 Mo. 558, 38 Am. St. Rep. 615, 22 S. W. 813.

Ohio. Bonham v. Hamilton, 66 O. S. 82, 63 N. E. 597.

South Dakota. Baskerville v. Johnson, 20 S. D. 88, 104 N. W. 913.

Vermont. Allen Lumber Co. v. Hig-uera, 86 Vt. 453, 85 Atl. 979.

14 Alabama. Drake v. Scott, 136 Ala. 261, 96 Am. St. Rep. 25, 33 So. 873.

Indiana. Evansville & Terre Haute Ry. v. Erwin, 84 Ind. 457.

Maine. Merrill Furniture Co. v. Hill, 87 Me. 17, 32 Atl. 712.

Massachusetts. Commonwealth v. Devlin, 141 Mass. 423, 6 N. E. 64.

Minnesota. National Bank v. Chicago, Burlington & Northern Ry., 44 Minn. 224, 20 Am. St. Rep. 566, 9 L. R. A. 263, 46 N. W. 342.

Missouri. Johnson-Brinkman Commission Co. v. Central Bank, 116 Mo. 558, 38 Am. St. Rep. 615, 22 S. W. 813.

Oregon. Johnson v. Iankovetz, 57 Or. 24, 29 L. R. A. (N.S.) 709, 110 Pac. 398.

Vermont. Allen Lumber Co. v. Hi-guera, 86 Vt. 463, 85 Atl. 979.

15 Jones v. Southern Cooperage Co., 94 Ark. 621, 127 S. W. 704; Amundson v. Standard Printing & Mfg. Co., 140 Ia. 464, 118 N. W. 789; Bonham v. Hamilton, 66 O. S. 82, 63 N. E. 597; Baskerville v. Johnson, 20 S. D. 88, 104 N. W. 913.