The enforcement of the parol evidence rule, which was originally adopted by the courts in analogy to the rule of merger, whereby a sealed instrument merged a prior simple contract, leads to the doctrine uniformly recognized and enforced at modern law, that a written contract merges all prior and contemporaneous oral negotiations.1 This is not technically a rule of merger, since the written contract is of no higher grade than the oral contract. As far as a direct action upon the original oral contract is concerned, the result, however, is substantially the same as if the technical doctrine of merger were applied, since in an action upon the written contract neither party can resort to the prior or contemporaneous oral agreement as evidence of the intention of the parties direct.2

17 Shelby v. Chicago & E. 111. R. Co., 143 111. 386, 32 X. E. 438.

18 Kemp v. Pennsylvania R. R., 156 Pa. St. 430, 26 Atl. 1074.

19 Bank v. Patterson, 11 U. S. ( Cranch) 290, 3 L. ed. 351.

20 Walton v. United States, 22 U. S (9 Wheat.) 651, 6 L. ed. 182.

21 Van Vleit v. Jones. 20 X. J. L. 340 43 Am. Dec. 633; Burke v. Cruger, Tex. 66; 58 Am. Dec. 102 [s. c, 11 Tex. 6941; Witz v. Fite, 91 Va. 446, 22 S. E. 171.

22 Witz v. Fite, 91 Va. 446 22 S. E. 171.

23Sessa v. Arthur, 183 Mans. 230, 66 X. E. 804; Davis v. Lee, 52 Wash. 330, 132 Am. St. Rep. 973, 100 Pac. 752.

24 Henry v. Nubert (Tenn. Ch. App.) 35 S. W. 444.

1 United States. McKinley v. Williams, 74 Fed. 94, 20 C. C. A. 312; Ryan v. Ohmer, 244 Fed. 31; Simonton v. Shaw, 246 Fed. 683; California Bridge & Const. Co. v. United States, 50 Ct.

Cl. 40.

Arizona. Smith v. Mosbarger, 18 Ariz. 19, 156 Pac. 79.

Arkansas. Graves v. Bodcaw Lumber Co., 129 Ark. 354, 196 S. W. 800.

California. West Coast Lumber Co. v. Apfield, 86 Cal. 335, 24 Pac. 993; Remsberg v. Hackney Manufacturing Co., 174 Cal. 799, 164 Pac. 792; Smith-Booth-Usher Co. v. Los Angeles Ice & Cold Storage Co., 175 Cal. 136, 165 Pac. 430.

District of Columbia. Kinney v. Mc-Nabb, 44 D. C. App. 340.

Georgia. Polhill v. Brown, 84 Ga. 338, 10 S. E. 921; Gray v. Phillips, 88 Ga. 199, 14 S. E. 205; McElveen v. Southern Ry. Co., 109 Ga. 249, 77 Am. St. Rep. 371, 34 S. E. 281.

Illinois. Hutchinson v. Coonley, 209 111. 437, 70 X. E. 686; Covel v. Benjamin, 35 111. App. 297.

Indiana. Stewart v. Babbs, 120 Ind. 568, 22 N. E. 770; Shirk v. Mitchell, 137 Ind. 185, 36 X. E. 850.

Iowa. Indianapolis Terra Cotta Co. v. Murphy, 99 Ia. 633, 68 X. W. 898; Shea v. Cutler, 147 Ia. 366, 126 N. W. 366.

Kentucky. Kreitz v. Gallenstein, 170 Ky. 16, 185 S. W. 132.

Massachusetts. Hayden v. Shaw, 191 Mass. 533, 7 L. R. A. (N.S.) 525, 78 N E. 110.

Michigan. Grand Rapids Wood Finishing Co. v. Hatt, 152 Mich. 132, 115 N. W. 714.

Minnesota. Cable v. Foley, 45 Minn. 421, 47 N. W. 1136; Hagstrom v. Mc-Dougall, 131 Minn. 389, 155 X. W. 391; Anderson v. Upper Cuyuna Land Co., 132 Minn. 382, 157 X. W. 581; Virginia & Rainy Lake Co. v. Helmer, 140 Minn. 135, 167 X. W. 355.

Mississippi. Odoneal v. Henry, 70 Miss. 172, 12 So. 154.

Missouri. Plumb v. Cooper, 121 Mo. 668, 26 S. W. 678; Boyd v. Paul, 125 Mo. 9, 28 S. W. 171; Tracy v. Iron Works, 29 Mo. App. 342.

Nebraska. Clarke v. Kelsey, 41 Neb. 766, 60 N. W. 138.

New Mexico. Locke v. Murdoch, 20 N. M. 522, L. R. A. 1917B, 267, .151 Pac. 298.

New York. Smith v. Lennon. 131 X. Y. 560, 29 N. E. 820; Societa Italiana v. Sulzer, 138 N. Y. 468, 34 N. E. 193.

North Carolina. American Potato Co. v. Jenette Bros. Co., 172 N. Car. 1, 89 S. E. 791; Caffey v. Oak Furniture Co., 175 N. Car. 387, 95 S. E. 619.

North Dakota. Gilbert Mfg. Co. v. Bryan, - X. D. - , 166 X. W. 805.

Oklahoma. J. M. Hoard, Jr., Co. v. Grand Rapids Showcase Co., - Okla. - , 173 Pac. 844.

Oregon. Muir v. Morris, 80 Or. 378, 154 Pac. 117 [rehearing denied, Muir v. Morris, 80 Or. 378. 157 Pac. 785]; Snow v. Beard, 82 Or. 518, 162 Pac. 258; Leavitt v. Dimmick, 86 Or. 278, 168 Pac. 292.

Pennsylvania. Williams v. Notopo-los, 259 Pa. St. 469, 103 Atl. 290.

South Carolina. Hartsfield v. Cham-blin, 44 S. Car. 110, 21 S. E. 798.

Tennessee. McCrary v. Bristol Bank & Trust Co., 97 Tenn. 469, 37 S. W. 543.