If a contract for the sale of realty is executory on both sides, total failure of title is failure of consideration for which the purchaser may avoid the contract.1 In case of total failure of title, the purchaser may refuse to perform on his part;2 and he may use such failure of title as a defense to an action upon a promissory note which he has given for such realty, as long as such note is not in the hands of a bona fide holder.3 The purchaser may avoid the contract because of such failure of title, and he may recover the purchase money which he has paid to the vendor in performance of such contract,4 on surrendering possession to the vendor if the vendee has taken possession under the contract.5 If A has made a payment to B for an option upon property to which B had no title and which B never could convey, A may recover the amount thus paid.6 If the vendor renounces the contract the vendee may recover what he has paid in.7 If the vendor has withdrawn his deed from escrow, contrary to the terms of the contract, the vendee may resist collection of his note for the property in the vendor's hands.8 So if the vendor conveys the realty to another, the vendee may resist the collection of notes given by him for the purchase price if not in the hands of a bona fide holder.9 If the vendor refuses to deliver a deed when called upon the vendee may rescind and recover the purchase price already paid in by him.10 A vendee in possession can not have indemnity against incumbrances.11

16 Morgan v. Loomia, 78 Wis. 504, 48 N. W. 109.

17 Morgan v. Loomis, 78 Wis. 594, 48 N. W. 109.

18 Boyden v. McRoberts, 88 Mich. 134, 50 N. W. 115.

19 Fitzpatrick v. Fitzpatrick, 91 Mich. 394, 51 N. W. 1058.

20 Boyden v. McRoberts, 88 Mich. 134, 50 N. W. 115.

21 Smith v. King, 107 N. Car. 273, 12 S. E. 57.

22 McCardle v. Kennedy, 92 Ga. 198, 44 Am. St. Rep. 85, 17 S. E. 1001.

23 Wood v. Owen, 133 Ga. 751, 66 S. E. 951.

24 Danielson v. Danielson, 165 Wis. 171, L. R. A. 1917D, 624, 161 N. W. 787.

25 Powers v. Powers (Ky.), 39 S. W.

825; Bruer v. Bruer, 109 Minn. 260, 28 L. R. A. (N.S.) 608, 123 N. W. 813.

26 Martin v. Martin (Ky.), 20 S. W. 375; Bruer v. Bruer, 109 Minn. 260, 28 L. R. A. (N.S.) 608, 123 N. W. 813.

1 England. In re Head, 45 Ch. Div. 310.

United States. Ankeny v. Clark, 148 U. S. 345, 37 L. ed. 475.

Arkansas. Tupy v. Kocourek, 66 Ark. 433, 51 S. W. 69.

California. Crim v. Umbsen, 155 Cal. 697, 132 Am. St. Rep. 137, 103 Pac. 178.

Idaho. Maydale v. Peterson, 7 Ida. 502, 63 Pac. 1048; Boyd v. Boley, 25 Ida. 584, 139 Pac. 139.

Indiana. Morris v. Goodwin, 1 Ind. App. 481, 27 N. E. 985.

Iowa. Todd v. State Bank, 182 la. 276, 3 A. L. R. 971, 165 N. W. 593.

Louisiana. Talbot v. New Orleans Land Co., 143 La. 263, 78 So. 553.

Maine. Frye Pulpwood Co. v. Ray, 114 Me. 272, 95 Atl. 1039.

Michigan. Potter v. Ranlett, 116 Mich. 454, 74 N. W. 661.

Minnesota. Williams v. Gilbert, 120 Minn. 200, 139 N. W. 502.

New York. Moore v. Williams, 115 N. Y. 586, 22 N. E. 233; Blanck v. Sadlier, 153 N. Y. 551, 40 L. R. A. 606, 47 N. E. 920.

Ohio. Lewis v. White, 16 O. S. 444.

Oklahoma. Martin v. Spaulding, 40 Okla. 191, 137 Pac. 882.

Pennsylvania. Pugg v. Midland Realty Co., 261 Pa. St. 453, 104 Atl. 685.

South Dakota. Poulson v. Markus, 34 S. D. 428, 148 N. W. 855.

Utah. Duncan v. Gisborn, 17 Utah 209, 53 Pac. 1044.

Washington. Reese v. Westfleld, 56 Wash. 415, 28 L. R. A. (N.S.) 956, 105 Pac. 837.

2 Ankeny v. Clark, 148 U. S. 346, 37 L. ed. 475; Maydale v. Peterson, 7 Ida. 502, 63 Pac. 1048; Todd v. State Bank, 182 la. 276, 3 A. L. R. 971, 165 N. W. 593; Poulson v. Markus, 34 S. D. 428, 148 N. W. 855.

3Todd v. State Bank, 182 la. 276, 3 A. L. R. 971, 165 N. W. 593.

4 Arkansas. Tupy v. Kocourek, 66 Ark. 433, 51 S. W. 69.

Indiana. Morris v. Goodwin, 1 Ind. App. 481, 27 N. E. 985.

Maine. Frye Pulpwood Co. v. Ray, 114 Me. 272, 95 Atl. 1039.

New York. Moore v. Williams, l15 N. Y. 586, 22 N. E. 233.

Utah. Duncan v. Gisborn, 17 Utah 209, 53 Pac. 1044.

5 Sayre v. Mohney, 30 Or. 238, 47 Pac. 197.

6 Frye Pulpwood Co. v. Ray, 114 Me. 272, 95 Atl. 1039.

7 Elder v. Chapman, 176 111. 142, 52 N. E. 10 (reversing, 70 111. App. 288].

8 Maydale v. Peterson, 7 Ida. 502, 63 Pac. 1048.

9 Battery Park Bank v. Loughran, 126 N. Car. 814, 36 S. E. 281.