Various state bankrupt laws have been enacted which provide for granting discharges to debtors who comply with the provisions thereof.1 A state of the union has power to enact laws of this sort;2 and a discharge which is granted thereunder is a defense as against all obligations which were incurred after such state statute was enacted, which were in existence when the bankruptcy proceedings took place, and which were due and owing to a citizen of the state in which such proceedings were had, or to one who entered his appearance in such proceedings or otherwise submitted himself to the jurisdiction of the court.3 These state bankrupt acts, however, lack efficiency for several reasons, the more important of which are discussed in the following sections.4