The creditor may waive certain requisites of a valid and operative tender.1 The law does not require either of the parties to the contract to do a vain thing;2 and if the party to whom the tender is to be made, makes it clear that he will not accept tender, such refusal on his part waives formal tender on the part of the adversary party.3 If the debtor is ready and willing to pay the money, the actual production of it may be waived by the absolute refusal of the creditor to accept it.4 If the creditor refuses to accept legal tender notes and demands coin,5 or refuses to accept anything less than an excessive amount,6 or refuses to deal with the debtor,7 or refuses to remain long enough to give the debtor an opportunity to count out the money,8 actual tender is waived. If a party to whom money is due gives notice that he will not accept such payment, but that he will insist upon a right which he claims as an alternative, such statement on his part operates as a waiver of tender.9 By statute, refusal to accept an offer of performance excuses production of the thing to be delivered in performance. This includes payment of money.10 Thus the mortgagee's denial of the mortgagor's right to make such payment excuses formal tender.11 So does a denial of the right of one seeking to redeem for non-payment of taxes.12 So does the creditor's refusal to accept payment of a debt for which he holds a lien unless another debt not a lien is also paid,13 or demand of interest for an excessive period.14

16 Bowen v. Gerhold, 32 Ind. App. 014, 102 Am. St. Rep. 257, 70 N E. 546.

17 Bowen v. Gerhold, 32 Ind. App. 014, 102 Am. St. Rep. 257, 70 N. E.' 540.

18 Parker v. Beasley, 110 N. Car. 1, 33 L. R. A. 231, 21 S. E. 955.

19 Andrews v. Hoeslich, 47 Wash. 220, 18 L. R. A. (N.S.) 1205, 91 Pac. 772.

20 Horgan v. Russell, 24 N. D. 490, 43 L. R. A. (N.S.) 1150, 140 N. W. 99.

1 United States. Servel v. Jamieson, 255 Fed. 892.

Alabama. Smith v. Thomas, - Ala. - , 78 So. 820.

California. Walker v. Harbor Business Blocks Co., - Cal. - , I86 Pac. 350.

Connecticut. Grippo v. Davis, 92 Conn. 093, 104 Atl. 105.

Iowa. Kuhlman v. Wiebcn. 129 Ia. 188, 2 L. R. A. (N.S.) 666, 105 N. W. 445.

Michigan. Fournier v. Glutton, 146

Mich. 298, 7 L. R. A. (N.S.) 179, 109 N. W. 425.

Montana: Old Kentucky Distillery v. Stromberg-Mullins Co., 54 Mont. 285, 169 Pac. 734; Baum v. Northern Pac. Ry. Co., 55 Mont. 219, 175 Pac. 872.

Nebraska. Baird v. Union Mutual Life Ins. Co., - Neb. - , 173 N. W. 686.

New York. Rockland-Rockport Lime Co. v. Leary, 203 N. Y. 469, L. R. A. 1916F, 352, 97 N. E. 43.

Oklahoma. Puls v. Casey, 18 Okla. 142, 92 Pac. 388.

Oregon. Puffer v. Badley, 92 Or. 360, 4 A. L. R. 1561, 181 Pac. 1.

South Carolina. Fayssoux v. Seaboard Air Line Ry. Co., 109 S. Car. 352 96 S. E. 150.

Washington. McLeod v. Morrison, 00 Wash. 083, 38 L. R. A. (N.S.) 783, 120 pnc. 528; Huber v. Home Savings & Loan Association, 99 Wash. 593, 109 Par. 979

West Virginia. Catlett v. Bloyd, - W. Va. - , 99 S. E. 81.

2 Marchant v. Hughlett, 118 Md. 229, 84 Atl. 380; Butler v. Glcason, 214 Mass. 248, 101 N. . 371; lbs v. Hartford Life Ins. Co., 121 Minn. 310, 141 N. W. 289.

"Parties can not be required to do vain things." State v. Webster Parish, 120 La. 163, 14 L. R. A. (N.S.) 794, 45 So. 47.

3 California. Walker v. Harbor Business Blocks Co., - Cal. - , 186 Pac. 356.

Connecticut. Grippo v. Davis, 92 Conn. 693, 104 Atl. 165.

Illinois. Gillespie v. Fulton Oil & Gas Co., 236 111. 188, 86 N. E. 219.

Michigan. Fournier v. Clutton, 146 Mich. 298, 7 L. R. A. (N.S.) 179, 109 N. W. 425.

Montana. Old Kentucky Distillery v. Stromberg-Mullina Co., 54 Mont. 285, 169 Pac. 734.

Oklahoma. Puls v. Casey, 18 Okla. 142, 92 Pac. 388.

Oregon. Puffer v. Badley, 92 Or. 360, 4 A. L. R. 1561, 181 Pac. 1.

West Virginia. Poling v. Parsons, 38 W. Va. 80, 18 S E. 379.

4 United States. Hills v. Bank, 105 U. S. 319, 26 L. ed. 1052.

Alabama. Smith v. Thomas, - Ala. - , 78 So. 820.

California. Peckham v. Stewart, 97 Cal. 147, 31 Pac. 928; O'Connor v. Morse, 112 Cal. 31, 53 Am. St. Rep 155, 44 Pac. 305.

Connecticut. Hall v. Norwalk Fire Ins. Co., 57 Conn. 105, 17 Atl. 356.

Delaware. Wood v. Bangs, 2 Penn. (Del ) 435, 48 Atl. 189.

Indiana. Blair v. Hamilton, 48 Ind. 32.

Kansas. Champion Machine Co. v. Mann, 42 Kan 372.

Louisiana. Sonia Cotton Oil Co. v. The Red River, 106 La. 42, 87 Am. St. Rep. 294, 30 So. 303; State v. Webster Parish, 120 La. 163, 14 L. R. A. (N.S.) 794, 45 So. 47.

Massachusetts. Hazard v. Loring, G4 Mass. (10 Cush.) 267.

Michigan. Jones v. Preferred Bankers' Life Assurance Co., 120 Mich. 211, 79 N. W. 204.

Minnesota. Pinney v. Jorgensen, 27 Minn. 26, 6 N. W. 376.

Missouri Girard v. St. Louis Car Wheel Co., 123 Mo. 358, 45 Am. St. Rep. 556, 25 L. R. A. 514, 27 S. W. 648; Stephenson v. Kilpatrick, 166 Mo. 262, 65 S. W. 773.

Montana. Baum- v. Northern Pac. Ry. Co., - Mont. - , 175 Pac. 872.

Nebraska. Jones v. Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Ry., 102 Neb. 853, 170 N. W. 170.

New Jersey. McCormick v. Hickey, 56 N. J Eq. 848, 42 Atl. 1019.

New York. Rockland-Rockport Lime Co. v. Leary, 203 N. Y. 469, L. R. A. 1916F, 352, 97 N. E. 43.

Ohio. Brock v. Hidy, 13 O. S. 306.

Pennsylvania. Westmoreland & Cambria Natural Gas Co. v. De Witt, 130 Pa. St. 235, 5 L. R. A. 731, 18 Atl. 724; Hampton v. Spcckenagle, 9 S. & R. (Pa.) 212, 11 Am. Dec. 704.

South Carolina. Fayssoux v. Seaboard Air Line Ry. Co., 109 S. Car. 352, 96 S. E. 150.

South Dakota. McPherson v. Fargo, 10 S. D. 611, 66 Am. St. Rep. 723, 74 N. W. 1057; Stanley v. Pilker, 40 S. D. 403, 167 N. W. 393.

If the debtor offers to pay the amount due and is able to produce it in a few minutes, actual tender is excused by the creditor's refusal to accept. So if the debtor states that he has money in a bank in the same building as that in which the conversation occurs, and offers to get it and pay the debt, the refusal of the creditor to receive it waives actual production of the money.15 The same principle applies where the money is in another bank in the same town and can be reached in a few minutes.16