Fastening Leather To Iron

To fasten leather to iron, digest one part of crushed nut-galls for six hours with eight of distilled water, and strain the mass. Soak glue in its own weight of water for twenty-four hours and then dissolve it. The warm infusion of galls is spread upon the leather and the glue solution on the roughened surface of the warm metal, the moist leather is pressed upon it and, when dry, it adheres so firmly that it cannot be removed without tearing.

Fastening Paper Labels To Iron

The place where the label is to be put is rubbed with half an onion. The label is then stuck on with gum, glue or paste. The firm adherence of the vegetable mucilage of the onion to the iron and its combination with the paste on the paper prevents any cracking off. This will also stand heat.

Fastening Roof

How to fasten a tin roof that has worked loose: Cut tin strips about 1 inch long by 1/2 inch in width, and use 3/4 inch screws. Lay the strip of tin close to the seam; after scraping the paint off sufficiently, punch a hole through one end, put in a screw, turn the tin over the head and solder well.

Fastening Tin Down

In fastening tin down which has become loose, use No. 7 screws, 3/4 inch. Take a small piece of tin 5/8 of an inch wide by 1 1/8 inch long, punch a hole in one end, leaving room to cover the screw head and solder well. Use resin and hot copper to take the paint off in good shape by brushing with a broom while hot. The tin holds the screw better than solder alone.

Ferric Chloride

Ferric chloride is made by the addition of chlorine water to a solution of ferrous chloride. I can also be made by the dissolution of ferric oxide in hydra-chloric acid. If placed in water, it dissolves into a yellow fluid.

Ferric Oxide

For polishing purposes Ferric oxide is used both in a natural and in a prepared state. The natural ferric oxide, such as specular and red iron ores, hematite, etc., should be ground fine and elutriated. A common form of ferric oxide is found in the polishing agent variously known as crocus, colcothar, jewelers' rouge (or red) or caput mortuum, which is obtained by heating ferric sulphate in a preparation of fuming sulphuric acid.

Ferric Sulphate

Ferric sulphate is made by heating 5 parts of ferrous sulphate with 1 part of sulphuric acid and 15 parts of water, and adding to the boiling solution nitric acid in small quantities until the color of the fluid changes from black to a brownish-yellow. When evaporated, it yields a pale-yellow crystalline mass which, on the compounding with sulphuric acid, gives anhydrous ferric sulphate.


Ferro-manganese is composed of:

75 parts Manganese, 75 parts Iron.

Ferrous Chloride

Ferrous chloride is made by the dissolution of iron in hydro-chloric acid. After the solution is evaporated pale-green crystals are secured, which oxidize in the air and which easily dissolve in spirit of wine.

Ferrous Sulphate

Ferrous sulphate, otherwise known as green vitriol, or copperas, is made by the dissolution of iron filings in dilute sulphuric acid. When the solution is boiling hot it is filtered and the filtered product is mixed with spirit of wine, upon which the ferrous sulphate will separate as a fine, white, crystalline meal, which is washed with spirit of wine and rapidly dried between blotting papers.