For the crimson and light red flowers we may use for the medium tones: madder lake, light red, yellow ochre, white, and a very little ivory black; for the dark red chrysanthemums: madder lake and raw umber, with the addition of burnt sienna and ivory black for the deepest touches; for the grey half-tints: white, a little yellow ochre, madder lake and a little ivory black; for the highest lights: white, a little yellow ochre and madder lake, to which should be added the least touch of ivory black.

For the lighter pink chrysanthemums: madder lake, white, yellow ochre and very little ivory black. In the shadows raw umber and light red are added, and in the cool half-tints a little permanent blue, with white, a little ivory black, yellow ochre, and madder lake; for the yellow centres, light cadmium, white, madder lake, and raw umber or ivory black.

Purple Chrysanthemums usually shade from the outside inward, showing paler tints of violet in the centre, sometimes at this point almost fading into white or pale yellow. One should not fail to take advantage of the presence of such passage of complementary colour. For the deep purple flowers lav in the local tone with a general tint composed of permanent blue, white, and a little madder lake, to which should be added a very little yellow ochre and a little ivory black. In modelling the flower, this tone may be made lighter or darker as may be required. The deep shadows are added later, being painted with permanent blue, burnt sienna, raw umber, and a little madder lake; no white is needed. Where the deepest touches of shadow are seen beneath overlapping petals, and in the darker passages, use a tone composed of madder lake, blue, and ivory black almost pure, applying it with a small, pointed brush. For the high lights - which should be left for the last so that the colour may be clean and crisp - mix cobalt, white, rose madder and a little ivory black, using a small, flat bristle brush, which when filled with the pigment may be guided along the edges of the petals in crisp, short lines.

The green calyx will need a green of warm quality, which may be made more or less blue, according to the model. The local colour of the leaves will be of the same tone, but more black, with burnt sienna, will have to be added for the shadows throughout. For the large and darker leaves: for a general tone, mix medium zinnober green with white, a little Antwerp blue, ivory black and madder lake; in the deeper shadows some burnt sienna and madder lake will be useful and less white and yellow will be required. For the stems, which must be carefully drawn with a pointed bristle brush, mix a tender green composed of zinnober green with white, madder lake, a little cadmium and a little ivory black. Where small, rich touches of reflected light are seen, a mixture of burnt sienna, Antwerp blue, raw umber, and cadmium may be used, sometimes with the addition of a very little white if it seems to be needed.

In Water Colours such highly decorative flowers cannot be painted satisfactorily by the dry method. Use medium rough Whatman paper which has been thoroughly dampened and stretched over a board, the edges pasted down all around the under margin of the latter. When the paper is dry, draw in the outlines of the study with a hard pencil, lightly outlining every petal, leaf, and stem; then with a sponge again dampen the whole paper.