Bisect the corner (a right angle) carefully, and draw a line. Then, with the fingers the leather must be pulled over and patted till it exactly meets on the line. Treat the other corners in this way, and then knock all the corners and edges up until they are neat and square. The board must be-pushed up at the joint until the edge is quite square with the groove, the leather at each end being pulled back tightly to keep it in place.

Fig. 29   Book on block, (or tidying up the inside of the cover.

Fig. 29 - Book on block, (or tidying up the inside of the cover.

Fig. 28. Headcap, with thread tied round for drying.

Fig. 28. Headcap, with thread tied round for drying.

If the leather becomes dry during these various processes, it may be damped with a sponge, and, should that not be sufficient, a little paste can be applied with the fingers. Preserve the grain of the leather as far as possible.

When both sides are finished, shut them up carefully between waterproof boards. Knock the leather standing out at each end of the back down over the headbands to form a cap, which should be of the same thickness as the boards. It must be pulled up until it is very sharp and square. The leather must be pushed neatly into the notches on either side of the headbands, and a thread tied all round it to ensure its keeping in place while the book is drying. A pointed folding-stick inserted between the thread and the cap will serve to push the latter well out of the corner. (Fig. 28.)

This must be left standing upright until quite dry, when the thread and waterproof boards may be removed, and the covers carefully opened for the finishing off inside. Lay the book, with one side open, on a block, and make a line all round on the leather an inch in. (Fig. 29.)

Place a straight-edge up to the line and cut just through the leather, the rough edge of which will peel off quite easily. Cut a piece of white paper of a size exactly to fit up to the leather, and to the edge of the joint, but not over the side. Paste this over and rub it down well. Treat the other cover similarly, and stand the whole on end to dry, with the covers turned right back. A small square of millboard, with a notch cut in it, can be placed over the two to keep them together.

Fig. 27.   Cutting off the corners of leather for covering.

Fig. 27. - Cutting off the corners of leather for covering.

Fig. 30.   End paper cut to fit cover.

Fig. 30. - End paper cut to fit cover.

If uneven, this lining paper can be sandpapered smooth. The protecting leaf is now torn out, and any bits of paste in the joints cleared away. Lay the book on the block again, and pull the single end paper up on to the board, leaving just enough to lie flat in the joint, and crease it along. Then mark where the edge of the leather comes on the end paper, measuring from the edge of the book, and making two marks on each side. Protect the under side with a tin, and cut with a sharp knife, stopping at the creases, and turning straight up to the edges, thus leaving a little corner of paper that will fit to each end of the joint over the leather. (Fig. 30.)

Harebell Design. By Jean W. Inglis.

Harebell Design. By Jean W. Inglis.

Turn the paper back on to the book, and paste it thinly. Rub a little paste into the joint with the finger; lift the paper, press it well into the joint with a folder, and lay it down over the board. Rub it down well, through a piece of protecting paper, and see that it sticks everywhere. When one side is finished, leave it open till it is thoroughly dry before completing the other side.

Finally, place tins covered with clean paper inside each cover right back into the joint. Shut the boards down, tap along the joints on the outside with a hammer. Then place the completed book in the standing press, without removing the tins, and leave it screwed down lightly for a few hours.

The next article will treat with the decoration of the covers, for which the book is now ready.

E. de Rheims. (To be continued.)

AN interesting method of wall treatment is the application of paint to the plaster, put on thick enough to give the brush marks relief, the decoration being stencilled over this in gold. In addition to differences in design and colour in the different examples, a third difference is secured in the manipulation of the brush which gives to the ground certain designs that are brought out by the reflections. In one house, for example, the short brush marks have a plaited effect which is seen in the olive ground underneath the stencilling. In the decorators' own rooms these take the form of recurrent waves. In the library of another house the ground is a dark olive, somewhat cold in tint, with the brush marks making a basket pattern. Over this is stencilled a floriated pattern, the flower being oblong-shaped but as large as the sunflower. This is repeated on the ceiling, where the ground is gold and enclosed between traversing beams of mahoganv dividing it into square panels. About this is a blue-green border, where the same design makes the decoration. The cove, which is enclosed between mahogany rails, is in gold and shows waving brush marks. Below is the frieze, whose design is festoons of drapery in blue and reversed cornucopias in colour. The general effect of this decoration is decidedly striking.