Mechanics is a constructive science, its principles lying at the root of the design and operation of all machinery. It is usually taught, however, as an advanced mathematical subject; and the student gets his original conceptions of forces, moments, and beams in the abstract, before he realizes the constructive value of such conceptions. By "Constructive Mechanics" is meant the study of a machine purely from its constructive side, the viewing of the parts with respect to their "mechanics," and satisfying the requirements of the same in form and arrangement.

The student may cultivate this habit of clear, mechanical perception by constantly noting the "mechanics" of the simple structures which he sees in his daily routine of work. Aside from machinery, in which the "mechanics" is often obscure, the world is full of simple examples of natural strength and symmetry, explainable by application of the principles of pure "mechanics".

Posts and pillars are largest at their bases; overhanging brackets or arms are spread out at the fastening to the wall; heavy swinging gates are counter-balanced by a ponderous weight; the old-fashioned well sweep carries its tray of stones at the end, adjusting the balance to a nicety; these are examples of things depending for their form and operation upon the principles of "mechanics." The building of them involved "constructive mechanics," and yet their constructor perhaps never heard of the science, using merely his natural sense of mechanical fitness. Such simple reasoning is, however, Constructive Mechanics.

## Forces, Moments, And Beams

Machines are nothing but collection of (1) parts taking direct stress, or (2) parts loaded beams. Forces acting with stress on the sustaining part. Fduce a moment; the sustaining member is a Warn, and the stress therein depends on the theory of beams, as explained in "Me-chanies".

An example of the first is the load on a rope, the force acting without leverage, and the rope therefore having a direct stress put upon it.

An example of the second is a push of the hand on the crank of a grindstone. A moment is produced about the hub of the crank; the arm of the crank is a beam, and the stress at any point of it may be found by the method of theory of beams.