As ordinarily considered, orders are of two general classes, namely:
Fig. 18. Production Order.
1. Production Orders, by which the production departments are set to work manufacturing some regular or special product which is to be sold to customers.
2. Plant Orders. These orders relate to the repairs and maintenance of the grounds, buildings, and equipment of the plant, and to new additions to and alterations of the same.
Both of these classes originate with the Factory Manager, who receives instructions as to all important orders from the General Manager of the company, who will authorize and keep in touch, not only with the production of the plant, but in a general way with all changes, improvements, and maintenance expenses of the establishment.
Fig. 18 shows the form of a regular production order. This card or blank is made of such dimensions as the kind of manufacturing business to which it pertains may require. It is customary to use a card 4 by 6 inches; but if such is to be written upon the central space in order to describe the work properly, it should be somewhat larger. The principal features of this form are spaces for the title of the card, the order number, and date. At the bottom is given the date when the work is expected to be completed, and the date of its actual completion. These dates are important as a matter of reference in considering the promptness and efficiency of the departments where the work has been done.
Fig. 10. Sub-Production Order.
The work to be done is briefly described in the central portion, together with such references to sets of drawings, etc., as may be necessary to render the terms of the order indisputably certain. This order is signed by the Factory Manager and sent to the Superintendent. In a large concern it is sent to the Superintendent of Production or the Production Engineer, according to the particular manner of the organization of the official force.
In any event the order is turned over to the official having charge of production, who will make out Sub-Production orders (Fig. 19) (or each department in which the particular work described upon the orders is to be done. A time limit is given for the completion of the work, and a space provided for the actual date of completion. They are not signed when issued, but are dated and signed by the foreman when the work is completed.
As has been described, plant orders are those necessary for the changes, improvements, and maintenance of the plant and equipment. In some establishments there are two series of orders, namely: (a) those for improvements and maintenance of the plant proper - that is, grounds and buildings; and (b) improvements and maintenance of equipment. This is a very proper and natural division. These accounts may be subdivided to a very great extent, but not with corresponding value.
Plant orders are usually issued by the Superintendent (or General Superintendent, in a large plant), and are returnable to him, as will be seen upon reference to the form shown in Fig. 20. This ordei is usually directed to a certain department. If more than one department is involved in the work, a separate order is issued to each. The general form of the order is the same as in the two preceding ones, the instructions being changed to suit the nature of the case.
Fig. 20. Plant Order.
On the back of this order is a form for entering the cost of material and labor, as shown in Fig. 21. The dates upon which each item (or group of items) of material is furnished, are given, as are also the dates for the various items of labor, although the work of an entire week may be entered upon a single line. On the second half of the card, space is provided for the totals of both material and labor cost; also such general expenses in the form of a percentage or such other apportionment as may be authorized, are entered.
By this method the order for the work, and a summary of the expense of executing the order, are contained upon the same card, which is very convenient for future reference and comparison.