1. What is the meaning of the term "wrought iron"?

2. What is a flux? When is it used?

3. What is the difference between the cope and drag?

4. What is the weight of a cast-iron plate 16 inches square and 2 inches thick with a hole 3 inches in diameter through the center? Ana. 129.79 pounds.

5. What is loam?

6 How are cores dried?

7. How is blacking applied to a mold?

8. Why should a freshly daubed ladle be dried before using?

9. What grade of pig iron contains the largest proportion of combined carbon relatively to the whole amount in the iron?

10. What is the ordinary method by which castings are hardened?

11. What are chaplets ?

12. What are risers?

18. How are the arms of large gears usually moulded ?

14. Why are large gears and wheels usually cast in sections?

15, To what depth does the chill in castings extend?

16. Under what circumstances are loam moulds ordinarily used?

17. What should be the diameter of the shell of a cupola 24 inches in diameter?

18. What is the bed of a charge?

19. What is the best material from which to make flasks?

20. What is the upward pressure on a cope where there are three surfaces of 16, 35 and 48 square inches submerged respectively to the depths of 15 inches, 10 inches and 18 inches?

Ans. 379 pounds approx.

21. What is the most common form of dry sand moulding?

22. What is a cope ?

23. What effect does the point at which the metal enters the mould have upon the pressures exerted, by the molten metal ?

24. What is the difference in appearance between graphitic and combined carbon in pig iron ?

25. What effect does manganese have upon the quality of iron?

26. What is the object of using a follow board?

27. What kind of cores are used for columns ?

28. How is the full width of face for a pulley obtained?

29. What is the object of using a contracting chill?

30. How are loam moulds built?

31. What should be the height of a cupola that is 44 inches in diameter?

32. What is the pressure upon the bottom of a mould 24 inches below the surface of the gate, the area being 5 feet square?

Ans. 22,524.48 pounds.

33. What is the condition of the first iron that flows from the spout after putting on the blast?

34. What effect does chilling have upon the metal of a casting ?

35. How should a mould with small cores and passages be poured?

36. What effect does silicon have upon the quality of iron?

37. What are the ordinary methods that are employed for cleaning castings?

38. What is the object of feeding a mould?

39. At what point is the metal usually poured into a pulley mould?

40. What is the chief characteristic of a good chilling iron?

41. In what way are loam moulds dried, other than in a core oven ?

42. What is the first work to be done in the preparation of the cupola for melting?

43. What thickness of sand should be left about the cavities of a mould ?

44. What is the weight of a cast iron ball 12 inches in diameter? Ans, 235.87 pounds.

45. How many grades of foundry irons are there ?

46. What effect does phosphorus have upon the quality of iron?

47. What portion of a three-part flask is called the "cheek"?

48. How is the pattern for the spokes of a pulley placed in the mould ?

49. How many coats of loam are usually applied in making a loam core?

50. What should be the diameter of the shell of a cupola which is 44 inches in diameter inside the lining?

51. How are the two parts of a flask made to register accurately when brought together after the pattern has been removed?

52. Of what are cores made?

53. What is the object of using blacking?

54. What effect does sulphur have upon the quality of iron?

55. What classes of castings can be made in open sand?

56. How are pipes usually cast? Why?

57. What is skinning loam?

58* What is the weight of a oast iron plate 1 3/4 inches thick and in the form of a trapezoid of the following dimensions; parallel sides 18 inches and 12 inches long respectively; perpendicular distance between parallel sides 9 inches? Ans. 61.59 pounds.

59. With what class of pig iron can the largest quantity of scrap be used?

60. How are large gears usually moulded?

61. What is the object of annealing chilled castings?

62. What should be the total area of the tuyeres in a cupola:

(a) 32 inches in diameter; (-6) 43 inches in diameter; (c) 66 inches in diameter?

63. What is the weight of a cast iron plate 1 inches thick m the form of an equilateral triangle, each of whose sides measures 16 inches? Ans. 43.35 pounds.

64. How should a large mould of heavy section be poured?

65. What means should be taken to avoid weakening castings where changes of direction occur in the surfaces?

66. How is a pulley to be moulded whose face is to be less than that of the pattern from which it is made ?

67. What are some of the more common of the impurities contained in pig iron ?

68. What is the upward pressure on a cope where there are two surfaces of 90 square inches and 1 square foot, submerged'18 and 21 inches respectively below the surface of the metal?

Ans. 1210.69 pounds.

69. How are the parts of a flask held in position when the metal is being poured ?

70. When is a three-part flask used?

71. When is a loam mould in the best condition for blacking?

72. How is sand prepared for moulding?

73. What is the principal foreign element in pig iron?

74. How are gears moulded where a full pattern is provided?

75. What properties should sharp sand possess?

76. What should be the height of a cupola that is 56 inches in diameter?

77. What is the object of blacking a core?

78. What is the upward pressure on a cope where the exposed surface is 2 square feet and the depth 19 inches?

Ans. 1426.56 pounds.

79. What is the smallest number of teeth that should be" placed in a sectional gear pattern?

80. What should be the principal ingredients composing moulding sand?

81. What precautions must be taken in cooling castings?

82. What kind of moulding is most practiced?

88. Why is hay rope used on loam cores?

84. What grade of iron contains the largest proportion of graphitic carbon?