The shoulder where the round stock joins the square should be forged in the manner indicated in Fig. 63. The bar is laid across the anvil with the point where the shoulder is wished lying directly on the corner of the anvil. The set hammer is then placed on top of the work in such a way that the edge of the set hammer comes directly in line with the edge of the anvil. The set hammer is then driven into the work with a sledge hammer. The bar should be turned continually or an uneven shoulder will be the result. If a shoulder is wanted on one side only, as illustrated in Fig. 64, it should be worked in as indicated there; that is, one side of the iron should lie flat on the anvil face while the set hammer works down the metal next to the shoulder.

Forging Shoulder.

Fig. 63. Forging Shoulder.

Making Shoulder Only on One Side.

Fig. 64. Making Shoulder Only on One Side.

After the two ends of the hook are drawn out, the eye and the hook are bent up into shape. The twist in the center of the hook may be made either by using two pairs of tongs or by twisting in a vise. By the latter method a mark is first made on the vise in such a way that, when the end of the hook is placed even with the mark, the edge of the vise will come at the end of the point where the twist is wanted. The hook should be heated and placed in the vise, the other end being grasped by a pair of tongs in such a way that the distance between the tongs and the vise is just equal in length to the twist. The twist is made by simply revolving the tongs around. In making a twist of this kind, no allowance need be made in length, as it practically has no effect on the length of the stock.