This plate illustrates, as nearly as reproduction can accomplish, the pencil layout of the steam end. It is the first work of the designing draftsman. The drawing as shown is exactly the type of layout which he would turn over to a detail draftsman, whose duty it would be to work up detail shop drawings therefrom.

Characteristics Of A Layout

The character of this drawing should be carefully studied. Remember that it is a layout, nothing more; also bear in mind that it is an exact, measurable working sketch. Attention is called to the sharpness of the lines, especially to the clean-cut intersections. Note the boldness, dash, and businesslike style, the freehand cross-section lines roughly put in. There is no hesitation or worry as to where the end of a line shall be, or whether it crosses other lines which it theoretically should not. The intersections are allowed to indicate the termination of lines, and the rough section lines pick out the parts and separate them clearly to the eye. There is, in this layout, the spirit of confident, definite, and rapid action, with no thought for absolute finish in linework, but with every thought for absolute results as to measurable dimensions.

Relations Of Different Drawings

The data for the production of Plate A by the student are rather more complete than he would usually find in practice. Plates B, C, and D show many details fully.

The steam cylinder and head, however, as shown in Plate B, are not dimensioned, and the student's problem is to produce this plate complete, with finish marks, dimensions, and necessary data for a working drawing. In order to do this it is first necessary to work up Plate A with exactness, in pencil, and see that all parts go together properly. Then the detail of cylinder and head may be made separately by measurement of the layout drawing, and Plate B produced.

For this work the ordinary brown detail paper is very satisfactory. A hard lead pencil is necessary, as hard as 6H, and the point must be kept well sharpened.

Rules Of Action

There are two general rules of action in producing a drawing which give the answer to the question which frequently confronts the beginner: "What is to be done first?" or "What is to be done next?" These rules are: (1) Draw everything that is positively known; and (2) work from the inside to the outside.

Every problem has some positive data, assumed or calculated, to start with. The first thing to do in every case is to get this data represented by lines on the paper. An expert designer has been heard to say that until he had spoiled the blankness of his sheet of paper by some lines, he could not design. There is something in this; and almost invariably the first line to draw is a horizontal center line somewhere near the middle of the sheet; draw it! Draw it at once without hesitation, and the layout is begun. We now have something about which to build.

Development Of Layout

In this case the designer would first calculate the size of the piston rod, and determine the fastening to the piston. He would then draw the rod and build a hub around it. He would next calculate the width or thickness of piston and size of packing rings, and draw the two vertical lines 5 inches apart, to indicate the piston faces. These lines would be limited by the cylinder bore, which he knows to be 16 inches; hence horizontal lines 16 inches apart, parallel to and symmetrical with the center line, are the next to be drawn. Short vertical lines indicate the location of the packing rings. As the nominal travel of the piston is to be 12 inches, the location of the piston and rings can be shown on both sides of the central vertical line at the limits of travel. A clearance must exist between the heads and the piston (in this case inch is allowed), hence the lines of the heads can be drawn, and the general inside outline of the cylinder barrel is complete.

This is all in direct application of the foregoing rules, and is so simple, natural, and direct that it hardly requires such explicit statement. We have simply taken such data as we had and put it on paper, placing it where it can be seen from all sides, and where the mind is relieved of the labor of carrying it.

If the student will only appreciate this one rule and draw all he knows about the problem, he is well on his way to its solution. Draw everything you know, and work for what you don't know is what these two rules say, and the first question to arise should be: "Have I drawn everything that is known about the problem?" before he asks himself or any one else: "What shall I do next?"

Dimensions In Even Figures

One other rule might be added to these two: Keep dimensions in even figures, if possible. This means that small fractions should be avoided. It is just as easy to bear this point in mind, and save the workman much annoyance and chance of error, as it is to disregard this matter. Even figures constitute one of the trade-marks of an expert draftsman. Of course a few small fractions, and sometimes decimals, will be necessary. Remember, however, that fractions must in every case be according to the common scale; that is, in sixteenths, thirty-seconds, sixty-fourths, etc.; never in thirds, fifths, sevenths, or such as do not occur on the common machinist's scale.

A systematic, definite mode of treatment on these lines must become a habit, so that all problems, however complicated, can be approached with confidence in the same way. It is the drawing of one line which makes clear the drawing of the next and subsequent lines; and the most serious obstacle which the student is likely to set for himself is trying to see the whole problem through from the beginning. Even an expert cannot do this, but allows the layout to develop results as he proceeds.

Cylinder Details

The details of the piston and rod being given in Plate C, the foregoing work is very easy for the student. The thickness of the barrel and heads being determined (7/8 inch in this case), the exterior outline may be partially drawn. The fixed head at the yoke end must be thicker than this, in order to receive the yoke and stuffing-box bolts without breaking through. The recesses or counterbores at either end of the cylinder should be so located that the packing rings run over the edge a little at the end of the stroke, thus preventing the wearing of a shoulder by the piston stopping in the same place every time. The counterbore should be deep enough to allow reboring the cylinder without the counter-bore being touched by the tool. In this way the counterbore is retained to center the cylinder at its original location.