In making a ring or an eye, the first step of course is to calculate the amount of stock required. In making ordinary rings 4 or 5 inches in diameter, the stock should be heated for about half its length. In starting the bend, the extreme end of the piece is first bent by placing the bar across the horn of the anvil and bending it down as illustrated in Fig. 57. The bar is then pushed ahead and bent down as it is fed forward. The blows should not come directly on top of the horn but should fall outside of the point of support, as illustrated. This bends the iron and does not hammer it out of shape. One half of the circle is bent in this way, then the stock is turned end for end, the other end heated, and the second half bent in the same way as the first, the bending being started from the end as before.

Eye bending is done in a somewhat different manner. Suppose it be required to bend up an eye as shown in Fig. 58. To calculate the amount of stock required: The diameter in this case to be used is 2 inches, and the amount of stock required 2 inch x 3 1/7 inch = 6' inches, or practically 6 3/8 inches. This distance is laid off by making a chalk mark on the anvil 6 3/8 inches from the end. The iron is heated and placed against the anvil with one end on the chalk mark and the other end extending over the end of the anvil. The hand hammer is then held on the bar with one edge at the edge of the anvil, thus measuring off the required distance on the bar. Still holding the hammer on the bar the piece is laid across the anvil, with the edge of the hammer even with the edge of the anvil and the 6 3/8 inches extending over the edge or corner. This piece is then bent down into a right angle as shown in the first illustration of Fig. 59. The eye is bent in much the same manner as the ring, except that all the bending is done from one end, the successive steps being shown in the illustration. Small eyes are closed up in the manner shown in Fig. 60.

Fig. 57. Starting Eye Bend.

Fig. 58. Finishing Eye Bend.

Fig. 60. Successive Steps in Eye Bending.

Fig. 60. Closing Up Small Eyes.

Fig. 61. Bends with Square-Forged Corners.