All matters that can be conveniently typewritten should be done in that manner. The practice of taking letterpress copies of letters and other matter sent out is clumsy and involves too much subsequent labor. Replies to letters should be duplicated by carbon copies attached to the answered letter and filed by the simple and efficient vertical system.

The superintendent's orders to the shop will be made in triplicate when the work is done under the jurisdiction of both assistant superintendents, each having a copy. These should be written in a carbon copy book with an indelible pencil. This book should be 5« in. × 8« in., of white paper, and have the proper leaves perforated for removal. Each leaf has a printed heading containing the name of the firm or company, the words "Superintendent's Order," a date line, and numbered consecutively in triplicate. These orders as given will contain the order number of the general office, and those made by the superintendent for small jobs to be made from drawings should specify drawing numbers for identification, and the general office numbers if ordered from that source.

Orders to the shop which affect the entire force, such for instance as a change in the hours of work, for shutting down the works for repairs or holidays and similar matters, will be a separate series, typewritten, and carbon copies made for posting near the time clocks. They will be consecutively numbered and denominated "General Orders." The assistant superintendents will use carbon copy books similar to that used by the superintendent, but of pink paper, for their orders to the foremen. These orders should have the name of the company and the heading "Shop Orders, First Division," and "Shop Orders, Second Division," according to whether they are to be used by the first or second assistant superintendent. A date line should be added, with sufficient space for the usual rubber stamp. Each assistant superintendent will carry one of these books with him so as to be prepared to write an order at any time or place necessary.

The foremen should have similar books, 4 in. x 6 in. in size, and of light blue paper, headed with the name of the company, the words "Foreman's Order..... .Dep't," and date line. Whenever drawings do not sufficiently explain the work to the workman, or in the absence of drawings, the foreman will invariably make a written rather than give a verbal order. This order is retained by the workman as his authority for the work in case there may follow any question in relation to its correctness. And this idea will be followed all the way through, not endeavoring to remember things that are proper subjects for record, not burdening the mind with dates, sizes, amounts, etc., but recording them, writing them down, stamping a name and a date upon them, and placing them on file where they may be conveniently referred to in case any question arises. The carbon copybooks maybe conveniently used for sketches as well as written matter, and often with more comprehensive meaning. A good sketch with dimensions can scarcely ever be made to mean what was not intended. Sometimes writing is weak in this respect, particularly if carelessly done.

The superintendent, assistants, foremen, clerks, and all others requiring use of name, date, approval, receipt, and similar matters should be provided with rubber stamps. They should date every blank, sketch, or memorandum that passes through their hands unless it already bears a stamp of even date, and it will be safer to do so then, the name being stamped as well as the date.

The regular routine method of passing orders through the works, and the books and blanks necessary for carrying out these methods, will be as follows, it being understood that many of the smaller parts of the machines being manufactured are made in large numbers and turned into the finished parts storeroom, from which they are drawn on proper requisitions when needed for assembling.

Orders are supposed to be given by the general manager for complete machines, usually in lots of varying numbers according to the size of the machines and the requirements of the market. The superintendent's orders will ordinarily be for groups of parts. For instance, in building lathes the general manager orders a lot of 25 lathes of 24-inch swing. The superintendent makes orders for 25 head stocks, tail stocks, carriages with rests, aprons, etc., complete. Then for 25 beds complete and of different lengths as specified by the general office order, and later on orders the lot, or certain parts of it, as may be necessary, to be erected and made ready for final inspection.

Copies of the superintendent's order will be given to each of his assistants. The first assistant will make his order to the drawing room, pattern shop, stock room, foundry, and forge shop, and will see that the necessary drawings go to the second assistant; that the patterns go to the foundry; that material is furnished on the foremen's requisitions; that the foundry makes the castings and that the forge shop gets out the forgings. Small castings and forgings may already be complete in the finished parts storeroom ready for use in assembling. Malleable iron, steel, brass, and bronze castings are considered as purchased stock or material if the establishment is not equipped for making them. In consequence, the purchasing clerk will order them, receiving the proper patterns from the pattern shop. The storekeeper will receive and receipt to the purchasing clerk and issue them to the proper departments with an invoice of their numbers, weights, cost, etc. The information for making the orders for stock, materials, and purchased parts is derived from the drawing room which furnishes lists of parts (see Fig. 164) of the different machines as well as of the different kinds of material used in their manufacture. These lists are on white paper 5« in. × 8« in. As many sheets are used as may be necessary and fastened together with the staple binder. There should be a sufficient number of copies made to supply one copy to the superintendent, each assistant and each foreman doing work on the parts and requiring them, as well as to others as the superintendent may require. Those going to the foremen may have unnecessary sheets omitted. For instance, the foreman of forge shop will not want a list of castings, etc.