Common Pewter

Seven lbs. tin, 1 lb. lead, 6 oz. copper, and 2 oz. zinc. The copper must be first melted before the other metals are added.

Best Pewter

One hundred parts tin, and 17 parts antimony.

Hard Pewter

Twelve lbs. tin, 1 lb. antimony, and 4 oz. copper.

Common Solder

Two lbs. lead, and 1 lb. tin.

Soft Solder

Two lbs. tin, and 1 lb. lead.

Solder For Steel Joints

Nineteen dwts. fine silver, 1 dwt. copper, and 2 dwts. brass.

Silver Solder For Jewellers

Nineteen dwts. fine silver, 1 dwt. copper, and 10 dwts. brass.

Silver Solder For Plating

Ten dwts. brass, and 1 oz. pure silver.

Gold Solder

Twelve dwts. pure gold, 2 dwts. pure silver, and 4 dwts. copper.


Seven lbs. copper, 3 lbs. zinc, and 2 lbs. tin. The copper must be melted before the other metals are added.

Mock Platinum

Eight oz. brass, and 5 oz. zinc.

Alloy Of Platinum With Gold

Fifteen parts pure gold, and 1 part platinum. The gold must be melted before the platinum is added. This alloy is whiter than gold. Platinum has the singular property of depriving gold of its peculiar colour; if ten parts of gold are combined with only one of platinum, the alloy will appear of the colour of platinum. There is another remarkable property attending this alloy of gold and platinum, that it is soluble in nitric acid, which does not act upon either of the metals in a separate state.

Ring Gold

Six dwts. 12 grs. pure copper, 3 dwts. 16 grs. fine silver, and 1 oz. 5 dwts. pure gold. Jeweller's gold is made of variable proportions of pure gold and copper, and sometimes of silver.

Imitation Of Silver

One lb. copper, and $ oz. tin. This alloy will be of a deeper colour than silver, but in other respects it is very similar.

Alloy Of Platinum With Steel

Platinum although the most infusible of metals, when in contact with steel melts at a comparatively low temperature, and combines with it in any proportion. This alloy does not rust or tarnish by exposure to a moist atmosphere, for many months. The alloy is malleable, and is well adapted for instruments which would be injured by slight oxidation as mirrors for dentists, etc. The best proportions do not yet appear to be known, out it appears that if much platinum be used, the alloy has a damask or wavy appearance. Steel for cutting instruments is much improved by even 1/500 th of platinum.

Alloy Of Silver And Steel

Steel 500 parts, and silver 1 part. If a large proportion of silver is employed, the compound appears to be a mechanical mixture only. The silver is distinctly seen in fibres mixed with the steel, and the alloy is subject to voltaic action. When the proportion does not exceed 1/500, the compound appears to be a chemical union; the steel is rendered much harder, forges remarkably well, and is infinitely superior to the best cast steel for cutting instruments, etc.

Alloy Of Steel With Rhodium

If from 1 to 2 per cent, of rhodium be combined with steel, the alloy possesses great hardness, with sufficient tenacity to prevent cracking, either in forging or hardening. This alloy requires to be heated about 73° Fahr, above the best English cast steel in tempering. It is superior to that metal; but the scarcity of rhodium will prevent the extensive use of this valuable compound.

Fusible Alloys

Four oz. bismuth, 21/2 oz. lead, and 11/2 oz. tin. Melt the lead first, and then add the other metals. This alloy will melt in boiling water, although the melting temperature of the several components is much higher; viz. lead, 612°; bismuth, 476°; tin, 442o.