A numerous class of undecompounded bodies, which are distinguishable by their lustre, ductility, malleability, tenacity, opacity, etc. They are fusible by heat, and in fusion retain their lustre and opacity; and they are all, except selenium, excellent conductors, both of electricity and caloric. When they are exposed to the action of oxygen, chlorine, or iodine, at an elevated temperature, they generally take fire, and combining with one or other of these three elementary dissolvents, in definite proportions, are converted into earthy or saline-looking bodies, devoid of metallic lustre and ductility, called oxides, chlorides, or iodides. They are capable of combining in their melted state with each other, in almost every proportion, constituting the important order of metallic alloys. From their brilliancy and opacity conjointly, they reflect the greater part of the light which falls on their surface, and hence form excellent mirrors. "The relations of the metals to the various objects of chemistry," Dr. Ure observes, "are so complex and diversified as to render their classification a task of peculiar difficulty. I have not seen any arrangement to which important objections may not be offered; nor do I hope to present one which shall be exempt from criticism.

The main purposes of a methodical distribution are to facilitate the acquirement, retention, and application of knowledge. With regard to metals in general, I conceive these purposes may be to a considerable extent attained, by beginning with those which are most eminently endowed with the characters of the genus, which most distinctly possess the properties that constitute their value in common life, and which caused the early inhabitants of the earth

General Table Of The Metals, By Dr. Ure

Names.

Specific Gravity.

Precipitants.

Colour of Precipitates by

Ferroprussiate of Potash.

Infusion of Galls.

Hydrosulphurets.

Sulphuretted Hydrogen.

1.

Platinum ..........................

21.47

Mur.ammonia ..............................

......................... O ..........................

........................ O ..........................

..............................

Black met. powd.

2.

Gold ...............................

19.30

Sulph. iron ..................................

Yellowish white ............................

Green; met .....................................

Yellow .................

Yellow.

Nitr. mercury ..............................

3.

Silver .............................

10.45

Common salt ..............................

White ...........................................

Yelloe-brown ...............................

Black ....................

Black.

4.

Palladium .......................

11. 8

Prussiate mercury .......................

Deep orange ..................................

........................................................

Blackish-brown.

Black-brown.

5.

Mercury ..........................

13. 6

Common salt ..............................

White passing to yellow ...............

Orange-yellow ..............................

Brownish-black.

Black.

6.

Copper ..........................

8. 9

Iron ...........................................

Red-brown ...................................

Brown ............................................

Black ...................

Ditto.

7.

Iron ..............................

7. 7

Saccin. soda, with peroxide.......

Blue, or white passing to blue....

Protox. O ...............................................

Ditto ....................

.............. O.

Perox. black ..........................................

8.

Tin .................................

7.29

Corro. sublimate ........................

White ............................................

........................ O ..........................

Protox. black.

Brown.

Perox. yellow.

9.

Lead ...............................

11.35

Sulph. soda .................................

Ditto ...............................................

White ............................................

Black ...................

Black.

10.

Nickel ............................

8. 4

Sulph. Potash ..............................

Ditto ...............................................

Grey-white ....................................

Ditto ....................

......... O.

11.

Cadminum .....................

8. 6

Zinc ...........................................

Ditto ...............................................

........................ O ..........................

Orange-yellow......

Orange-yellow.

12.

Zinc ................................

6. 9

Alk. carbonates ............................

Ditto ...............................................

........................ O ..........................

White ..................

Yellowish-white.

13.

Bismuth ..........................

9.88

Water ...........................................

Ditto ...............................................

Yellow .........................................

Black-brown.........

Black-brown.

14.

Antimony .......................

6.70

Water .................................................

With dilute solutions, white..........

White from water ........................

Orange ................

Orange.

Zinc ...................................................

15.

Manganese .....................

8.

Tartr. Potash ...............................

White ..............................................

........................ O ..........................

White ..................

Milkiness.

16.

Cobalt ..........................

8. 6

Alk. carbonates ...........................

Brown-yellow ...............................

Yellow-white ...............................

Black .................

......... O.

17.

Tellurium .......................

6.15

Water ...........................................

........................ O ..........................

Yellow .........................................

Blackish ...............

Antimony ...........................................

18.

Arsenic.....................

8.35

Nitr. lead ......................................

White ..............................................

.......................................................

Yellow ................

Yellow.

5.76

19.

Chromium ......................

5.90

Ditto ...........................................

Green .............................................

Brown ............................................

Green ...................

20.

Molybdenum .................

8. 6

Ditto ...........................................

Brown ...........................................

Deep-brown .................................

.............................

Brown.

21.

Tungsten ........................

17. 4

Mur. lime ? .................................

Dilute acids ..................................

Chocolate ............

22.

Columbium ...................................

5. 6?

Zinc, or inf. galls .......................

Olive ............................................

Orange ...........................................

23.

Selenium ........................

4. 3?

Iron ..................................................

Sulph, ammonia ................................

24.

Osmium ..........................

?

Mercury .......................................

.........................................................

Purple passing to deep blue.....

25.

Rhodium ........................

10.65

Zinc ?...........................................

........................ O ..........................

........................................................

............. O ............

26.

Iridium ..........................

18.68

Ditto ? .........................................

........................ O ..........................

........................ O ..........................

27.

Uranium .........................

9. 0

Ferro-prus. potash ......................

Brown-red ......................................

Chocolate ......................................

Brown-yellow......

............. O.

28.

Titanium ........................

?

Infusion galls .............................

Grass-green ...................................

Red-brown .....................................

Grass-green ........

............. O.

29.

Cerium ...........................

?

Oxal. amm ...................................

Milk-white .....................................

........................ O ..........................

White ..............................

......... O.

30.

Postassium ......................

0.865

Mur. plat .............................................

........................ O ..........................

........................ O ..........................

.........O.........

......... O.

Tar. acid .............................................

to give to the first metallurgists a place in mythology. Happy had their idolatry been always confined to such real benefactors ! By arranging metals according to the degree in which they possess the obvious qualities ofunalterability, by common agents, tenacity, and lustre, we also conciliate their most important chemical relations, namely, those to oxygen, chlorine, and iodine; since their metallic pre-eminence is, popularly speaking, inversely as their affinities for these dissolvents. In a strictly scientific view, their habitudes with oxygen should perhaps be less regarded in their classification than with chlorine, for this element has the most energetic attraction for the metals. But, on the other hand, oxygen, which forms one-fifth of the atmospheric volume, and eight-ninths of the aqueous mass, operates to a much greater extent among metallic bodies, and incessantly modifies their form, both in nature and art. Now the order we propose to follow will indicate very nearly their relations to oxygen. As we progressively descend, the influence of that beautiful element progressively increases.

Among the bodies near the head, its powers are subjugated by the metallic constitution; but among those near the bottom, it exercises an almost despotic sway, which Volta's magical pile, directed by the genius of Davy, can only suspend for a season. The emancipated metal soon relapses under the dominion of oxygen." This table is given at page 143.

The first 12 metals are malleable, and so are the 30th, 31st, and 32d, in their congealed state. The first 16 yield oxides, which are neutral salifiable bases. The metals 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, and 23, are acidifiable by combination with oxygen. Of the oxides of the rest, up to the 30th, but little is known. The remaining metals, sodium, lithium, calcium, barium, strontium, magnesium, yttrium, glucinum, aluminum, thorinum, zirconium, and silicium, form, with oxygen, the alkaline and earthy bases.